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Biomedical Engineering / Biomedizinische Technik

Joint Journal of the German Society for Biomedical Engineering in VDE and the Austrian and Swiss Societies for Biomedical Engineering and the German Society of Biomaterials

Editor-in-Chief: Dössel, Olaf

Editorial Board: Augat, Peter / Habibović, Pamela / Haueisen, Jens / Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm / Jockenhoevel, Stefan / Knaup-Gregori, Petra / Lenarz, Thomas / Leonhardt, Steffen / Plank, Gernot / Radermacher, Klaus M. / Schkommodau, Erik / Stieglitz, Thomas / Boenick, Ulrich / Jaramaz, Branislav / Kraft, Marc / Lenthe, Harry / Lo, Benny / Mainardi, Luca / Micera, Silvestro / Penzel, Thomas / Robitzki, Andrea A. / Schaeffter, Tobias / Snedeker, Jess G. / Sörnmo, Leif / Sugano, Nobuhiko / Werner, Jürgen /

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Volume 60, Issue 1


Volume 57 (2012)

Evaluation of a novel noninvasive continuous core temperature measurement system with a zero heat flux sensor using a manikin of the human body

Ivo F. Brandes
  • Corresponding author
  • Universitätsmedizin Göttingen, Zentrum für Anästhesiologie, Rettungs- und Intensivmedizin, Klinik für Anästhesiologie, Robert-Koch-Str. 40, 37099 Göttingen, Germany
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/ Thorsten Perl
  • Universitätsmedizin Göttingen, Zentrum für Anästhesiologie, Rettungs- und Intensivmedizin, Klinik für Anästhesiologie, Robert-Koch-Str. 40, 37099 Göttingen, Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
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/ Martin Bauer
  • Universitätsmedizin Göttingen, Zentrum für Anästhesiologie, Rettungs- und Intensivmedizin, Klinik für Anästhesiologie, Robert-Koch-Str. 40, 37099 Göttingen, Germany
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  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Anselm Bräuer
  • Universitätsmedizin Göttingen, Zentrum für Anästhesiologie, Rettungs- und Intensivmedizin, Klinik für Anästhesiologie, Robert-Koch-Str. 40, 37099 Göttingen, Germany
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  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2014-11-12 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bmt-2014-0063


Reliable continuous perioperative core temperature measurement is of major importance. The pulmonary artery catheter is currently the gold standard for measuring core temperature but is invasive and expensive. Using a manikin, we evaluated the new, noninvasive SpotOn™ temperature monitoring system (SOT). With a sensor placed on the lateral forehead, SOT uses zero heat flux technology to noninvasively measure core temperature; and because the forehead is devoid of thermoregulatory arteriovenous shunts, a piece of bone cement served as a model of the frontal bone in this study. Bias, limits of agreements, long-term measurement stability, and the lowest measurable temperature of the device were investigated. Bias and limits of agreement of the temperature data of two SOTs and of the thermistor placed on the manikin’s surface were calculated. Measurements obtained from SOTs were similar to thermistor values. The bias and limits of agreement lay within a predefined clinically acceptable range. Repeat measurements differed only slightly, and stayed stable for hours. Because of its temperature range, the SOT cannot be used to monitor temperatures below 28°C. In conclusion, the new SOT could provide a reliable, less invasive and cheaper alternative for measuring perioperative core temperature in routine clinical practice. Further clinical trials are needed to evaluate these results.

Keywords: core temperature; hypothermia; monitoring; noninvasive; thermometer; zero heat flux


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About the article

Corresponding author: Dr. med. Ivo F. Brandes, Universitätsmedizin Göttingen, Zentrum für Anästhesiologie, Rettungs- und Intensivmedizin, Klinik für Anästhesiologie, Robert-Koch-Str. 40, 37099 Göttingen, Germany, Phone: +49 551 39 6051, Fax: +49 551 39 12560, E-mail:

Received: 2014-04-03

Accepted: 2014-10-06

Published Online: 2014-11-12

Published in Print: 2015-02-01

Citation Information: Biomedical Engineering / Biomedizinische Technik, Volume 60, Issue 1, Pages 1–9, ISSN (Online) 1862-278X, ISSN (Print) 0013-5585, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bmt-2014-0063.

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