Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Biomedical Engineering / Biomedizinische Technik

Joint Journal of the German Society for Biomedical Engineering in VDE and the Austrian and Swiss Societies for Biomedical Engineering and the German Society of Biomaterials

Editor-in-Chief: Dössel, Olaf

Editorial Board: Augat, Peter / Habibović, Pamela / Haueisen, Jens / Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm / Jockenhoevel, Stefan / Knaup-Gregori, Petra / Lenarz, Thomas / Leonhardt, Steffen / Plank, Gernot / Radermacher, Klaus M. / Schkommodau, Erik / Stieglitz, Thomas / Boenick, Ulrich / Jaramaz, Branislav / Kraft, Marc / Lenthe, Harry / Lo, Benny / Mainardi, Luca / Micera, Silvestro / Penzel, Thomas / Robitzki, Andrea A. / Schaeffter, Tobias / Snedeker, Jess G. / Sörnmo, Leif / Sugano, Nobuhiko / Werner, Jürgen /

6 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.096
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.492

CiteScore 2017: 0.48

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.202
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.356

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 60, Issue 6


Volume 57 (2012)

Residual stress analysis of fixed retainer wires after in vitro loading: can mastication-induced stresses produce an unfavorable effect?

Iosif Sifakakis / Theodore Eliades
  • Department of Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry, Center of Dental Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich 8032, Switzerland
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Christoph Bourauel
  • Corresponding author
  • C+M Department of Oral Technology, School of Dentistry, University of Bonn, Bonn 53111, Germany
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2015-06-09 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bmt-2015-0013


The aim of the present study was to compare four different types of fixed canine-to-canine retainer regarding the maximum and residual force system generated on a canine during the intrusive in vitro loading of the rest of the anterior teeth. Retainers constructed from Ortho-FlexTech gold chain 0.038×0.016-inch (rectangular, 0.96×0.40 mm²), Tru-Chrome® 7-strand twisted 0.027-inch (round, 0.68 mm diameter) steel wire, and Wildcat 0.0175-inch (round, 0.44 mm) and 0.0215-inch (round, 0.55 mm) 3-strand Twistflex steel wire bonded on the anterior teeth of an acrylic resin model, installed in the Orthodontic Measurement and Simulation System. The force system on the canine was recorded during the loading of the anterior teeth as well as the residual force system at the same tooth after the unloading. During maximum loading, the gold chain exerted the lowest and the 0.0215-inch archwire the highest force and moment magnitude. Residual forces and moments were exerted on the canine after the unloading in all retainer types, i.e., the evaluated fixed retainers were not passive after in vitro vertical loading. The lowest magnitude was measured in gold chain retainers and the highest in cases of the high formable/low yield strength 0.027-inch archwire. This fact may explain the unexpected movements of teeth bonded on fixed retainers detected long-term in vivo.

Keywords: fixed retainer; plastic deformation; orthodontics; unexpected tooth movement


  • [1]

    Al-Nimri K, Al Habashneh R, Obeidat M. Gingival health and relapse tendency: a prospective study of two types of lower fixed retainers. Aust Orthod J 2009; 25: 142–146.Google Scholar

  • [2]

    Årtun J, Spadafora AT, Shapiro PA. A 3-year follow-up of various types of orthodontic canine-to-canine retainers. Eur J Orthod 1997; 19: 501–509.Google Scholar

  • [3]

    Bourauel C, Drescher D, Their M. An experimental apparatus for the simulation of three-dimensional movements in orthodontics. J Biomed Eng 1992; 14: 371–378.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [4]

    Dahl EH, Zachrisson BU. Long-term experience with direct bonded lingual retainers. J Clin Orthod 1991; 25: 619–632.Google Scholar

  • [5]

    Drescher D, Bourauel C, Their M. Application of the orthodontic measurement and simulation system (OMSS) in orthodontics. Eur J Orthod 1991; 13: 169–178.Google Scholar

  • [6]

    Gmyrek H, Bourauel C, Richter G, Harzer W. Torque capacity of metal and plastic brackets with reference to materials, application, technology and biomechanics. J Orofac Orthop 2002; 63: 113–128.Google Scholar

  • [7]

    Graf H. Occlusal forces during function. In: Rowe NH, editor. Occlusion. Research on form and function. Ann Arbor center for growth and development, The University of Michigan 1975: 90–111.Google Scholar

  • [8]

    Harzer W, Bourauel C, Gmyrek H. Torque capacity of metal and polycarbonate brackets with and without a metal slot. Eur J Orthod 2004; 26: 435–441.Google Scholar

  • [9]

    Helkimo E, Carlsson GE, Helkimo M. Bite force and state of dentition. Acta Odontol Scand 1977; 35: 297–303.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [10]

    Huang Y, Keilig L, Rahimi A, et al. Numeric modeling of torque capabilities of self-ligating and conventional brackets. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2009; 136: 638–643.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [11]

    Ingram SB Jr, Gipe DP, Smith RJ. Comparative range of orthodontic wires. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1986; 90: 296–307.Google Scholar

  • [12]

    Kapila S, Sachdeva R. Mechanical properties and clinical applications of orthodontic wires. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1989; 96: 100–109.Google Scholar

  • [13]

    Katsaros C, Livas C, Renkema AM. Unexpected complications of mandibular lingual retainers. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2007; 132: 838–841.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [14]

    Kiliaridis S, Kjellberg H, Wenneberg B, Engström C. The relationship between maximal bite force, bite force endurance, and facial morphology during growth. A cross-sectional study. Acta Odontol Scand 1993; 51: 323–331.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [15]

    Lang G, Alfter G, Göz G, Lang GH. Retention and stability – taking various treatment parameters into account. J Orofac Orthop 2002; 63: 26–41.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [16]

    Lie Sam Foek DJ, Ozcan M, Verkerke GJ, Sandham A, Dijkstra PU. Survival of flexible, braided, bonded stainless steel lingual retainers: a historic cohort study. Eur J Orthod 2008; 30: 199–204.Google Scholar

  • [17]

    Linderholm H, Wennström A. Isometric bite force and its relation to general muscle forge and body build. Acta Odontol Scand 1970; 28: 679–689.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [18]

    Major TW, Carey JP, Nobes DS, Heo G, Major PW. Mechanical effects of third-order movement in self-ligated brackets by the measurement of torque expression. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2011; 139: e31–e44.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [19]

    Pandis N, Fleming PS, Kloukos D, Polychronopoulou A, Katsaros C, Eliades T. Survival of bonded lingual retainers with chemical or photo polymerization over a 2-year period: a single-center, randomized controlled clinical trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2013; 144: 169–175.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [20]

    Proffit WR, Fields HW. Contemporary orthodontics. 4th ed. St Louis: Mosby 2007.Google Scholar

  • [21]

    Renkema AM, Al-Assad S, Bronkhorst E, Weindel S, Katsaros C, Lisson JA. Effectiveness of lingual retainers bonded to the canines in preventing mandibular incisor relapse. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2008; 134: 179.e1–179.e8.Google Scholar

  • [22]

    Renkema AM, Al Assad S, Katsaros C. Effectiveness of bonded lingual retainers in controlling relapse of the lower incisors. Eur J Orthod 2003; 25: 439.Google Scholar

  • [23]

    Renkema AM, Renkema A, Bronkhorst E, Katsaros C. Long-term effectiveness of canine-to-canine bonded flexible spiral wire lingual retainers. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2011; 139: 614–621.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [24]

    Störmann I, Ehmer U. A prospective randomized study of different retainer types. J Orofac Orthop 2002; 63: 42–50.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [25]

    van Steenbergen E, Burstone CJ, Prahl-Andersen B, Aartman IH. The influence of force magnitude on intrusion of the maxillary segment. Angle Orthod 2005; 75: 723–729.Google Scholar

About the article

Corresponding author: Christoph Bourauel, C+M Department of Oral Technology, School of Dentistry, University of Bonn, Bonn 53111, Germany, Phone: +49 228 28722332, Fax: +49 228 28722385, E-mail:

Received: 2015-01-23

Accepted: 2015-05-07

Published Online: 2015-06-09

Published in Print: 2015-12-01

Citation Information: Biomedical Engineering / Biomedizinische Technik, Volume 60, Issue 6, Pages 617–622, ISSN (Online) 1862-278X, ISSN (Print) 0013-5585, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bmt-2015-0013.

Export Citation

©2015 by De Gruyter.Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Stephan Christian Möhlhenrich, Fabian Jäger, Andreas Jäger, Pascal Schumacher, Michael Wolf, Ulrike Fritz, and Christoph Bourauel
Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics / Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie, 2018
Firas Chakroun, Vera Colombo, Dave Lie Sam Foek, Luigi Maria Gallo, Albert Feilzer, and Mutlu Özcan
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 2018
O. Annousaki, S. Zinelis, G. Eliades, and T. Eliades
Dental Materials, 2017, Volume 33, Number 5, Page e205
D. Papadogiannis, A. Iliadi, T.G. Bradley, N. Silikas, G. Eliades, and T. Eliades
Dental Materials, 2017, Volume 33, Number 1, Page e22
Jonas Gugger, Nikolaos Pandis, Spiros Zinelis, Raphael Patcas, George Eliades, and Theodore Eliades
American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 2016, Volume 150, Number 4, Page 575
Dario T. Arnold, Michel Dalstra, and Carlalberta Verna
Journal of Orthodontics, 2016, Volume 43, Number 2, Page 121

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in