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Biomedical Engineering / Biomedizinische Technik

Joint Journal of the German Society for Biomedical Engineering in VDE and the Austrian and Swiss Societies for Biomedical Engineering and the German Society of Biomaterials

Editor-in-Chief: Dössel, Olaf

Editorial Board: Augat, Peter / Habibović, Pamela / Haueisen, Jens / Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm / Jockenhoevel, Stefan / Knaup-Gregori, Petra / Lenarz, Thomas / Leonhardt, Steffen / Plank, Gernot / Radermacher, Klaus M. / Schkommodau, Erik / Stieglitz, Thomas / Boenick, Ulrich / Jaramaz, Branislav / Kraft, Marc / Lenthe, Harry / Lo, Benny / Mainardi, Luca / Micera, Silvestro / Penzel, Thomas / Robitzki, Andrea A. / Schaeffter, Tobias / Snedeker, Jess G. / Sörnmo, Leif / Sugano, Nobuhiko / Werner, Jürgen /

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Volume 61, Issue 1


Volume 57 (2012)

A review of beat-to-beat vectorcardiographic (VCG) parameters for analyzing repolarization variability in ECG signals

Muhammad A. Hasan
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
  • Centre for Biomedical Engineering (CBME), The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
  • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3, Canada
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Derek Abbott
  • Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
  • Centre for Biomedical Engineering (CBME), The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2015-05-20 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bmt-2015-0005


Elevated ventricular repolarization lability is believed to be linked to the risk of ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation. However, ventricular repolarization is a complex electrical phenomenon, and abnormalities in ventricular repolarization are not completely understood. To evaluate repolarization lability, vectorcardiography (VCG) is an alternative approach where the electrocardiographic (ECG) signal can be considered as possessing both magnitude and direction. Recent research has shown that VCG is advantageous over ECG signal analysis for identification of repolarization abnormality. One of the key reasons is that the VCG approach does not rely on exact identification of the T-wave offset, which improves the reproducibility of the VCG technique. However, beat-to-beat variability in VCG is an emerging area for the investigation of repolarization abnormality though not yet fully realized. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to explore the techniques, findings, and efficacy of beat-to-beat VCG parameters for analyzing repolarization lability, which may have potential utility for further study.

Keywords: electrocardiography (ECG); QT interval variability; repolarization; vector electrocardiogram (VCG)


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About the article

Corresponding author: Muhammad A. Hasan, PhD, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3, Canada, Phone: +1-416-979-5000, ext. 2048, E-mail: mahasan@ryerson.ca; muhammad.hasan@adelaide.edu.au Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia; and Centre for Biomedical Engineering (CBME), The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia

Received: 2014-11-08

Accepted: 2015-04-17

Published Online: 2015-05-20

Published in Print: 2016-02-01

Citation Information: Biomedical Engineering / Biomedizinische Technik, Volume 61, Issue 1, Pages 3–17, ISSN (Online) 1862-278X, ISSN (Print) 0013-5585, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bmt-2015-0005.

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