Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Merhof, Dorit

Biomedical Engineering / Biomedizinische Technik

Joint Journal of the German Society for Biomedical Engineering in VDE and the Austrian and Swiss Societies for Biomedical Engineering and the German Society of Biomaterials

Editor-in-Chief: Dössel, Olaf

Editorial Board: Augat, Peter / Habibović, Pamela / Haueisen, Jens / Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm / Jockenhoevel, Stefan / Knaup-Gregori, Petra / Leonhardt, Steffen / Plank, Gernot / Radermacher, Klaus M. / Schkommodau, Erik / Stieglitz, Thomas / Boenick, Ulrich / Jaramaz, Branislav / Kraft, Marc / Lenarz, Thomas / Lenthe, Harry / Lo, Benny / Mainardi, Luca / Micera, Silvestro / Penzel, Thomas / Robitzki, Andrea A. / Schaeffter, Tobias / Snedeker, Jess G. / Sörnmo, Leif / Sugano, Nobuhiko / Werner, Jürgen /

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1.007
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.390

CiteScore 2018: 1.24

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.282
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.831

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 61, Issue 6


Volume 57 (2012)

Effect of toe extension on EMG of triceps surae muscles during isometric dorsiflexion

Ariba Siddiqi
  • Biosignals Lab, Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Sridhar P. Arjunan
  • Corresponding author
  • Biosignals Lab, Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Dinesh Kumar
  • Biosignals Lab, Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2016-03-26 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bmt-2014-0135


The protocol for estimating force of contraction by triceps surae (TS) muscles requires the immobilization of the ankle during dorsiflexion and plantar flexion. However, large variability in the results has been observed. To identify the cause of this variability, experiments were conducted where ankle dorsiflexion force and electromyogram (EMG) of the TS were recorded under two conditions: (i) toes were strapped and (ii) toes were unstrapped, with all other conditions such as immobilization of the ankle remaining unchanged. The root mean square (RMS) of the EMG and the force were analyzed and one-tail Student’s t-test was performed for significance between the two conditions. The RMS of the EMG from TS muscles was found to be significantly higher (~55%) during dorsiflexion with toes unstrapped compared with when the toes were strapped. The torque corresponding to dorsiflexion was also higher with toes unstrapped. Our study has shown that it is important to strap the toes when measuring the torque at the ankle and EMG of the TS muscles.

Keywords: antagonist; dorsiflexion; electromyogram (EMG); toe extension; triceps surae


  • [1]

    Anderson FC, Pandy MG. Static and dynamic optimization solutions for gait are practically equivalent. J Biomech 2001; 34: 153–161.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [2]

    Baratta R, Solomonow M, Zhou B, Letson D, Chuinard R, D’ambrosia R. Muscular coactivation. The role of the antagonist musculature in maintaining knee stability. Am J Sports Med 1988; 16: 113–122.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [3]

    Billot M, Simoneau E, Van Hoecke J, Martin A. Coactivation at the ankle joint is not sufficient to estimate agonist and antagonist mechanical contribution. Muscle Nerve 2010; 41: 511–518.PubMedWeb of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [4]

    Connelly DM, Rice CL, Roos MR, Vandervoort AA. Motor unit firing rates and contractile properties in tibialis anterior of young and old men. J Appl Physiol 1999; 87: 843–852.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [5]

    Lanza, IR, Russ DW, Kent-Braun JA. Age-related enhancement of fatigue resistance is evident in men during both isometric and dynamic tasks. J Appl Physiol 2004; 97: 967–975.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [6]

    Lanza, IR, Towse TF, Caldwell GE, Wigmore D, Kent-Braun JA. Effects of age on human muscle torque, velocity, and power in two muscle groups. J Appl Physiol 2003; 95: 2361–2369.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [7]

    Maganaris CN. Force-length characteristics of in vivo human skeletal muscle. Acta Physiol Scand 2001; 172: 279–285.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [8]

    Maganaris CN, Baltzopoulos V, Sargeant AJ. Differences in human antagonistic ankle dorsiflexor coactivation between legs; can they explain the moment deficit in the weaker plantarflexor leg? Exp Physiol 1988; 83: 843–855.Google Scholar

  • [9]

    Magnusson SP, Aagaard P, Rosager S, Dyhre-Poulsen P, Kjaer M. Load–displacement properties of the human triceps surae aponeurosis in vivo. J Physiol 2001; 531: 277–288.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [10]

    Marsh E, Sale D, McComas AJ, Quinlan J. Influence of joint position on ankle dorsiflexion in humans. J Appl Physiol 1981; 51: 160–167.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [11]

    McNeil CJ, Doherty TJ, Stashuk DW, Rice C L. Motor unit number estimates in the tibialis anterior muscle of young, old, and very old men. Muscle Nerve 2005; 31: 461–467.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [12]

    Muramatsu T, Muraoka T, Takeshita D, Kawakami Y, Hirano Y, Fukunaga T. Mechanical properties of tendon and aponeurosis of human gastrocnemius muscle in vivo. J Appl Physiol 2001; 90: 1671–1678.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • [13]

    Perry M, Carville S, Smith IC, Rutherford O, Newham D. Strength, power output and symmetry of leg muscles: effect of age and history of falling. Eur J Appl Physiol 2007; 100: 553–561.PubMedCrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [14]

    Razali NM, Wah YB. Power comparisons of shapiro-wilk, kolmogorov-smirnov, lilliefors and anderson-darling tests. J Stat Model Analytic 2, 2011; 1: 21–33.Google Scholar

  • [15]

    Salmons S. Muscle. In: Williams PL, editor. Gray’s anatomy. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone 1995: 881–883.Google Scholar

  • [16]

    SENIAM [Internet]. 2009. Surface electromyography for the non invasive assessment of muscles. Available from http://seniam.org/.

  • [17]

    Siddiqi A, Arjunan SP, Kumar DK, Improvement of isometric dorsiflexion protocol for assessment of tibialis anterior muscle strength. MethodsX 2015, 2: 107–111.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [18]

    Simoneau E, Billot M, Martin A, Van Hoecke J. Antagonist mechanical contribution to resultant maximal torque at the ankle joint in young and older men. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2009; 19: e123–e131.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [19]

    Vandervoort, AA, McComas AJ. Contractile changes in opposing muscles of the human ankle joint with aging. J Appl Physiol 1986; 61: 361–367.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • [20]

    Winegard KJ, Hicks AL, Sale DG, Vandervoort AA. A 12-year follow-up study of ankle muscle function in older adults. J Gerontol Biol Med Sci 1996; 51:B202–B207.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Corresponding author: Sridhar P. Arjunan, Biosignals Lab, Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia, Phone: +61 3 9925 5234, E-mail:

Received: 2014-10-22

Accepted: 2016-02-20

Published Online: 2016-03-26

Published in Print: 2016-12-01

Conflict of interest statement: Authors have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest, or nonfinancial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in this article.

Citation Information: Biomedical Engineering / Biomedizinische Technik, Volume 61, Issue 6, Pages 607–610, ISSN (Online) 1862-278X, ISSN (Print) 0013-5585, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bmt-2014-0135.

Export Citation

©2016 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in