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Merhof, Dorit

Biomedical Engineering / Biomedizinische Technik

Joint Journal of the German Society for Biomedical Engineering in VDE and the Austrian and Swiss Societies for Biomedical Engineering and the German Society of Biomaterials

Editor-in-Chief: Dössel, Olaf

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Volume 62, Issue 1


Volume 57 (2012)

Elemental, microstructural, and mechanical characterization of high gold orthodontic brackets after intraoral aging

Sepp Hersche
  • Clinic of Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry, Center of Dental Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, 8032, Switzerland
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Iosif Sifakakis / Spiros Zinelis
  • Clinic of Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry, Center of Dental Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, 8032, Switzerland
  • Department of Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, National and Kapodistrian, University of Athens, Athens, 11527, Greece
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Theodore Eliades
  • Corresponding author
  • Clinic of Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry, Center of Dental Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, 8032, Switzerland
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2016-04-06 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bmt-2015-0205


The purpose of the present study was to investigate the elemental composition, the microstructure, and the selected mechanical properties of high gold orthodontic brackets after intraoral aging. Thirty Incognito™ (3M Unitek, Bad Essen, Germany) lingual brackets were studied, 15 brackets as received (control group) and 15 brackets retrieved from different patients after orthodontic treatment. The surface of the wing area was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Backscattered electron imaging (BEI) was performed, and the elemental composition was determined by X-ray EDS analysis (EDX). After appropriate metallographic preparation, the mechanical properties tested were Martens hardness (HM), indentation modulus (EIT), elastic index (ηIT), and Vickers hardness (HV). These properties were determined employing instrumented indentation testing (IIT) with a Vickers indenter. The results were statistically analyzed by unpaired t-test (α=0.05). There were no statistically significant differences evidenced in surface morphology and elemental content between the control and the experimental group. These two groups of brackets showed no statistically significant difference in surface morphology. Moreover, the mean values of HM, EIT, ηIT, and HV did not reach statistical significance between the groups (p>0.05). Under the limitations of this study, it may be concluded that the surface elemental content and microstructure as well as the evaluated mechanical properties of the Incognito™ lingual brackets remain unaffected by intraoral aging.

Keywords: hardness; instrumented indentation testing; lingual; orthodontic brackets; scanning electron microscopy; surface analysis


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About the article

Corresponding author: Theodore Eliades, Clinic of Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry, Center of Dental Medicine, University of Zurich, Plattenstrasse 11, CH-8032 Zurich, Phone: +41 44 634 32 10/11, Fax: +41 44 634 43 35

Received: 2015-11-03

Accepted: 2016-03-02

Published Online: 2016-04-06

Published in Print: 2017-02-01

Conflict of interest statement: The authors confirm that they have no competing or financial interests in the products used.

Citation Information: Biomedical Engineering / Biomedizinische Technik, Volume 62, Issue 1, Pages 97–102, ISSN (Online) 1862-278X, ISSN (Print) 0013-5585, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bmt-2015-0205.

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