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Biomedical Engineering / Biomedizinische Technik

Joint Journal of the German Society for Biomedical Engineering in VDE and the Austrian and Swiss Societies for Biomedical Engineering and the German Society of Biomaterials

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Volume 62, Issue 3


Volume 57 (2012)

Mechanical properties of contemporary orthodontic adhesives used for lingual fixed retention

Iosif Sifakakis
  • Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Spiros Zinelis
  • Department of Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Raphael Patcas
  • Clinic of Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry, Center of Dental Medicine, University of Zurich, 8032 Zurich, Switzerland
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Theodore Eliades
  • Corresponding author
  • Clinic of Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry, Center of Dental Medicine, University of Zurich, 8032 Zurich, Switzerland
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2016-06-11 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bmt-2015-0165



The aim of the present study was to test the mechanical properties of different adhesives used in orthodontics for fixed retainers and to investigate their possible interrelations.

Materials and methods:

Specimens of six different adhesive resins were prepared: Transbond XT, Transbond LR and an experimental BPA-free orthodontic adhesive, as well as IPS Empress Direct (IPS-ED), ZNano and Accolade. The mechanical properties tested were Martens hardness (HM), indentation modulus (EIT), the ratio of elastic to total work, commonly known as elastic index (ηIT) and Vickers hardness (HV). These properties were determined using instrumented indentation testing according to ISO 14577-2002. The results of the aforementioned properties were statistically compared with one-way ANOVA-test and Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test at a=0.05, while possible correlations among the properties tested were analyzed by Pearson correlation.


Significant differences were identified among all the materials tested for HM, with Transbond LR presenting the highest value. This resin presented the highest EIT too. Significant EIT differences were identified among the materials and only ZNano and IPS-ED showed no significant differences for this property. Transbond LR and ZNano showed higher HV values. ZNano demonstrated the highest elastic index. Pearson analysis showed a strong positive correlation between HM and EIT (0.970), HM and HV (0.837), and EIT and HV (0.695), while a weak negative correlation was found between EIT and elastic index (-0.505).


The materials tested demonstrated significant differences in their mechanical properties, and thus differences in their clinical performance are anticipated.

Keywords: dental composite resin; fixed retainer; hardness; indentation modulus


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About the article

Corresponding author: Prof. Theodore Eliades, DDS, MS, Dr Med Sci, PhD, Director of the Clinic of Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry, Center of Dental Medicine, University of Zurich, Plattenstrasse 11, CH-8032 Zurich, Switzerland, Phone: +41 44 634 32 10/11, Fax: +41 44 634 43 35

Received: 2015-08-25

Accepted: 2016-05-11

Published Online: 2016-06-11

Published in Print: 2017-05-24

Citation Information: Biomedical Engineering / Biomedizinische Technik, Volume 62, Issue 3, Pages 289–294, ISSN (Online) 1862-278X, ISSN (Print) 0013-5585, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bmt-2015-0165.

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