Gédet P, Thistlethwaite PA, Ferguson SJ. Minimizing errors during in vitro testing of multisegmental spine specimens: considerations for component selection and kinematic measurement. J Biomech 2007; 40: 1881–1885.CrossrefWeb of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar
Goel VK, Nye TA, Clark CR, Nishiyama K, Weinstein JN. A technique to evaluate an internal spinal device by use of the selspot system: an application to luque closed loop. Spine 1987; 12: 150–159.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar
Goertzen DJ, Lane C, Oxland TR. Neutral zone and range of motion in the spine are greater with stepwise loading than with a continuous loading protocol. an in vitro porcine investigation. J Biomech 2004; 37: 257–261.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
McLachlin SD. An Investigation of Subaxial Cervical Spine Trauma and Surgical Treatment through Biomechanical Simulation and Kinematic Analysis. PhD thesis, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario 2013.Google Scholar
Milne A, Chess D, Johnson J, King G. Accuracy of an electromagnetic tracking device: a study of the optimal operating range and metal interference. J Biomech 1996; 29: 791–793.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar
Niosi CA, Zhu QA, Wilson DC, Keynan O, Wilson DR, Oxland TR. Biomechanical characterization of the three-dimensional kinematic behaviour of the dynesys dynamic stabilization system: an in vitro study. Euro Spine J 2006; 15: 913–922.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Nixon MA, McCallum BC, Fright WR, Price NB. The effects of metals and interfering fields on electromagnetic trackers. Presence Teleop Virt Environ 1998; 70: 204–218.Google Scholar
Northern Digital Inc. Aurora V2 User Guide. Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2V 1C5: Northern Digital Inc. 2012.Google Scholar
Raab FH, Blood EB, Steiner TO, Jones HR. Magnetic position and orientation tracking system. IEEE Trans Aero Elec Sys 1979; 15: 709–718.Google Scholar
Schmoelz W, Huber J, Nydegger T, Dipl-Ing, Claes L, Wilke H. Dynamic stabilization of the lumbar spine and its effects on adjacent segments: an in vitro experiment. J Spinal Disord Tech 2003; 160: 418–423.Google Scholar
Stoffel M, Willenberg W, Azarnoosh M, Fuhrmann-Nelles N, Zhou B, Markert B. Towards bioreactor development with physiological motion control and its applications. Med Eng Phys 2017; 39: 106–112.Web of ScienceCrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Stolworthy DK, Zirbel SA, Howell LL, Samuels M, Bowden AE. Characterization and prediction of rate-dependent flexibility in lumbar spine biomechanics at room and body temperature. Spine J 2014; 14: 789–798.PubMedCrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Strube P, Tohtz S, Hoff E, Gross C, Perka C, Putzier M. Dynamic stabilization adjacent to single-level fusion: part i. biomechanical effects on lumbar spinal motion. Euro Spine J 2010; 19: 2171–2180.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Van der Veen AJ, Dieen JH, Nadort A, Stam B, Smit TH. Intervertebral disc recovery after dynamic or static loading in vitro: Is there a role for the endplate? J Biomech 2000; 10: 2230–2235.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar
Van Herp G, Rowe P, Salter P, Paul J. Three-dimensional lumbar spinal kinematics: a study of range of movement in 100 healthy subjects aged 20 to 60+ years. Rheumatology 2000; 39: 1337–1340.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Volkheimer D, Malakoutian M, Oxland TR, Wilke HJ. Limitations of current in vitro test protocols for investigation of instrumented adjacent segment biomechanics: critical analysis of the literature. Euro Spine J 2015; 24: 1882–1892.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wilke HJ, Jungkunz B, Wenger K, Claes LE. Spinal segment range of motion as a function of in vitro test conditions: Effects of exposure period, accumulated cycles, angular-deformation rate, and moisture condition. Anat Rec 1998; 251: 15–19.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Wilke HJ, Rohlmann F, Neidlinger-Wilke C, Werner K, Claes L, Kettler A. Validity and interobserver agreement of a new radiographic grading system for intervertebral disc degeneration: Part i. lumbar spine. Euro Spine J 2006; 15: 720–30.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wilke HJ, Wenger K, Claes L. Testing criteria for spinal implants: recommendations for the standardization of in vitro stability testing of spinal implants. Euro Spine J 1998; 7: 148–154.CrossrefGoogle Scholar
Wilson E, Yaniv Z, Zhang H, et al. A hardware and software protocol for the evaluation of electromagnetic tracker accuracy in the clinical environment: a multi-center study. Proc SPIE Med Img 2007; 6509: 65092T1–65092T11.Google Scholar
Zirbel SA, Stolworthy DK, Howell LL, Bowden AE. Intervertebral disc degeneration alters lumbar spine segmental stiffness in all modes of loading under a compressive follower load. Spine J 2013; 13: 1134–1147.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar
About the article
Published Online: 2017-04-27
Published in Print: 2018-07-26
Research funding: This project is partially funded by START RWTH Research grants.
Conflict of interest: Authors state no conflict of interest.
Informed consent: Informed consent is not applicable.
Ethical approval: The conducted research is not related to either human or animals use.