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Biomedical Engineering / Biomedizinische Technik

Joint Journal of the German Society for Biomedical Engineering in VDE and the Austrian and Swiss Societies for Biomedical Engineering and the German Society of Biomaterials

Editor-in-Chief: Dössel, Olaf

Editorial Board: Augat, Peter / Habibović, Pamela / Haueisen, Jens / Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm / Jockenhoevel, Stefan / Knaup-Gregori, Petra / Lenarz, Thomas / Leonhardt, Steffen / Plank, Gernot / Radermacher, Klaus M. / Schkommodau, Erik / Stieglitz, Thomas / Boenick, Ulrich / Jaramaz, Branislav / Kraft, Marc / Lenthe, Harry / Lo, Benny / Mainardi, Luca / Micera, Silvestro / Penzel, Thomas / Robitzki, Andrea A. / Schaeffter, Tobias / Snedeker, Jess G. / Sörnmo, Leif / Sugano, Nobuhiko / Werner, Jürgen /

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Volume 63, Issue 6


Volume 57 (2012)

Validation of a novel biomechanical test bench for the knee joint with six degrees of freedom

Christian H. Heinrichs / Dominik Knierzinger / Hannes Stofferin
  • Division of Clinical and Functional Anatomy, Medical University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Werner Schmoelz
Published Online: 2017-10-17 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bmt-2016-0255


A novel biomechanical test bench has been developed for in-vitro evaluation of the knee joint. The test bench allows the kinematics of the knee joint to be studied in all six degrees of freedom. Flexion-extension knee movements are induced by quadriceps and hamstring muscle forces simulated by five pneumatic cylinders. The kinematics of the knee and the actively applied muscle forces are measured simultaneously. The aim of this study was to validate the sensitivity and reproducibility of this novel test bench. Four fresh frozen human knees were tested three times, each with seven flexion-extension cycles between 5° and 60°. After the native knees had been tested, the posterior cruciate ligament and then the lateral collateral ligament were dissected. The injured knees were tested in identical conditions [3×(7×5°–60°)] in order to evaluate whether the test bench is capable of detecting differences in knee kinematics between a native state and an injured one. With regard to reproducibility, the novel test bench showed almost perfect agreement for each specimen and for all states and flexion angles. In comparison with the native knees, the injured knees showed significant differences in knee kinematics. This validated novel test bench will make it possible to investigate various knee pathologies, as well as current and newly developed treatment options.

Keywords: active muscle loading; in vitro study; knee biomechanics; knee kinematics; knee simulator; LCL deficiency; PCL deficiency; validation


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About the article

Corresponding author: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Werner Schmoelz, Department of Trauma Surgery, Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria, Phone: +43 512 504 22413, Fax: +43 512 504 25743

Received: 2016-12-21

Accepted: 2017-09-04

Published Online: 2017-10-17

Published in Print: 2018-11-27

Citation Information: Biomedical Engineering / Biomedizinische Technik, Volume 63, Issue 6, Pages 709–717, ISSN (Online) 1862-278X, ISSN (Print) 0013-5585, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bmt-2016-0255.

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