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Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEA) in enzyme improvement – a review

Susana Velasco-Lozano
  • Corresponding author
  • Heterogeneous Biocatalysis group, CIC Biomagune, Parque Tecnológico de San Sebastián, Edificio Empresarial “C”, Paseo Miramón 182, 20009, Donostia-San Sebastián Guipúzcoa, Spain
  • Departamento de Biotecnología, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa. Av. San Rafael Atlixco #186, Col. Vicentina 09340, D.F. México
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Fernando López-Gallego
  • Corresponding author
  • Heterogeneous Biocatalysis group, CIC Biomagune, Parque Tecnológico de San Sebastián, Edificio Empresarial “C”, Paseo Miramón 182, 20009, Donostia-San Sebastián Guipúzcoa, Spain
  • Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011, Bilbao, Spain
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Juan C. Mateos-Díaz
  • Corresponding author
  • Centro de Investigación y Asistencia en Tecnología y Diseño del Estado de Jalisco, A.C., Unidad de Biotecnología Industrial, Guadalajara, México
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Ernesto Favela-Torres
  • Corresponding author
  • Departamento de Biotecnología, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa. Av. San Rafael Atlixco #186, Col. Vicentina 09340, D.F. México
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2016-02-25 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/boca-2015-0012


Structural and functional catalytic characteristics of cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEA) are reviewed. Firstly, advantages of enzyme immobilization and existing types of immobilization are described. Then, a wide description of the factors that modify CLEA activity, selectivity and stability is presented. Nowadays CLEA offers an economic, simple and easy tool to reuse biocatalysts, improving their catalytic properties and stability. This immobilization methodology has been widely and satisfactorily tested with a great variety of enzymes and has demonstrated its potential as a future tool to optimize biocatalytic processes.

Keywords: cross-linking; enzyme; immobilization; stabilization


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About the article

Received: 2015-09-17

Accepted: 2015-11-25

Published Online: 2016-02-25

Citation Information: Biocatalysis, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 166–177, ISSN (Online) 2353-1746, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/boca-2015-0012.

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© 2016 Susana Velasco-Lozano et al.. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

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