Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Botanica Lithuanica

The Journal of Nature Research Centre, Institute of Botany

2 Issues per year

Open Access
Online
ISSN
2029-932X
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Variation of Chemical and Morphological Characters of Leaves and Unripe Cones in Juniperus Communis

Vaida Vaičiulytė
  • Nature Research Centre, Institute of Botany, Žaliųjų Ežerų Str. 49, LT-08406 Vilnius, Lithuania
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Kristina Ložienė
  • Corresponding author
  • Nature Research Centre, Institute of Botany, Žaliųjų Ežerų Str. 49, LT-08406 Vilnius, Lithuania
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2013-07-09 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/botlit-2013-0005

Abstract

The variation of content of essential oil and pinene isomers and morphological parameters of leaves and unripe cones in Juniperus communis L. was studied. Leaves and cones were collected separate from 110 J. communis individuals in 11 different habitats throughout Lithuania. Essential oils were analysed by capillary gas chromatography (GC). The study showed more intensive essential oil accumulation and higher intraspecific variation of essential oil amount in unripe cones than in leaves. Significant differences between α- and β- pinene amounts were observed in J. communis. β-Pinene was detected in much higher quantities than α-pinene. Positive correlation was detected between pinene isomers in cones and leaves (r = 0.44, p < 0.05 and r = 0.50, p < 0.05, respectively) of the same tree showing pinene isomers common biosynthetic pathway. Significant differences between populations were characteristic of J. communis according to leaf length, unripe cones mass and essential oil yield in leaves, however, significant correlation was established between essential oil yield of leaves and habitat illumination (r = -0.67, p < 0.05) and soil acidity (r = -0.80, p < 0.05) only.

Santrauka

Buvo tirtas paprastojo kadagio (Juniperus communis) lapų bei neprinokusių kankorėžėlių cheminių ir morfologinių parametrų įvairavimas tarppopuliaciniame ir individų lygiuose. Lapai ir kankorėžėliai buvo surinkti atskirai nuo 110 individų iš dešimties ekologiškai skirtingų augaviečių Lietuvoje. Eterinių aliejų analizė atlikta dujų chromatografijos metodu. Tyrimai parodė, kad eterinio aliejaus daugiau susikaupia ir jų kiekis labiau įvairuoja neprinokusiuose kankorėžėliuose nei lapuose. Nustatyti dideli pineno izomerų kiekio skirtumai: lapuose ir kankorėžėliuose β-pineno buvo atitinkamai 26 ir 32 kartus mažiau nei α-pineno. Nustatyti teigiami koreliaciniai ryšiai tarp pineno izomerų kiekio kankorėžėliuose (r = 0,44, p < 0,05) ir lapuose (r = 0,50, p < 0,05) rodo, kad egzistuoja bendras α- ir β-pineno biosintezės kelias. Nustatyta patikima teigiama koreliacija tarp lapų ilgio ir lapų masės (r = 0,44, p < 0,05). Statistinė analizė parodė, kad J. communis lapų ilgiui, neprinokusių kankorėžėlių masei ir eterinio aliejaus kiekiui lapuose yra būdingi patikimai dideli tarppopuliaciniai skirtumai. Tačiau statistiškai patikimi koreliaciniai ryšiai nustatyti tik tarp eterinio aliejaus kiekio lapuose ir augavietės apšviestumo (r = -0,67, p < 0,05) bei dirvožemio rūgštingumo (r = -0,80, p < 0,05).

Keywords: Juniperus communis; leaves; unripe cones; essential oils; pinene isomers; morphological and chemical variation; abiotic factors

  • Adams R.P., 1998: The leaf essential oils and chemotaxonomy of Juniperus sect. Juniperus. - Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 26: 637-645.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Adams R.P., 2004: Junipers of the World: The Genus Juniperus. - Vancouver.Google Scholar

  • Angioni A., Barra A., Russo M.T., Coroneo V., Dessi S., Cabros P., 2003: Chemical composition of the essential oils of Juniperus from ripe and unripe berries and leaves and their antimicrobial activity. - Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 51: 3073-3078.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Atkinson R., Arey J., 2003: Atmospheric degradation of volatile organic compounds. - Chemical Reviews, 103: 4605-4638.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Başer K.H.C., Buchba uer G., 2009: Handbook of Essential Oils: Science, Technology and Applications. - CRCPress/Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar

  • Berta F., 1993: Occurrence and composition of essential oils in species of the genus Juniperus. - Folia Dendrologica, 20: 301-312.Google Scholar

  • Butkienė R., Nivinskienė O., Mockutė D., 2006: Differences in the Essential Oils of the Leaves (Needles), Unripe and Ripe Berries of Juniperuscommunis L. Growing Wild in Vilnius District (Lithuania). - Journal of Essential Oil Research, 18: 489-494.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Butkienė R., Nivinskienė O., Mockutė D., 2009: Two chemotypes of essential oils produced by the same Juniperus communis L. growing wild in Lithuania. - Chemija, 20: 195-201.Google Scholar

  • Cannac M., Barboni T., Ferrat L., Bighell i A., Castola V., Costa J., Trecul D., Morandini F., Pasqualini V., 2009: Oleoresin flow and chemical composition of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra subsp. laricio) in response to prescribed burnings. - Forest Ecology and Management, 257: 1247-1254.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Cavaleiro C., Salgueiro L.R., Figueiredo A.C., Barroso J.G., Bighell i A., Casanova J., 2003: Composition and variability of the essential oils of the leaves and berries from Juniperus navicularis. - Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 31: 193-201.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Cavaleiro C., Pinto E., Goncalv es M.L., Salgueiro L., 2006: Antifungal activity of Juniperus essential oils against dermatophyte, Aspergillus and Candida strains. - Journal of Applied Microbiology, 100: 1333-1338.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Chatzopoulou P.S., Katsiotis S.T., 2003: Chemical investigation of the leaf oil of Juniperus communis L. - Journal of Essential Oil Research, 5 (6): 603-607.Google Scholar

  • Conroy J., Barlow E.W.R., Bevege D.I., 1986: Response of Pinus radiata seedlings to carbon dioxide enrichment at different levels of water and phosphorus: growth, morphology and anatomy. - Annals of Botany, 57: 165-177.Google Scholar

  • Council of Europe, 2008: European Pharmacopoeia. - Strasbourg.Google Scholar

  • Čibiras L., 1959: Kadagys - Juniperus L. - In: Natkevičaitė-Ivanauskienė M. (ed.), Lietuvos TSR Flora, 1: 184-186. - Vilnius.Google Scholar

  • Dawson F.A., 1994: The amazing terpenes. - Naval Stores Review, March/April: 6-12.Google Scholar

  • Dorman H.J.D., Deans S.G., 2000: Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. - Journal of Applied Microbiology, 88: 308-316.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Filipowicz N., Madanecki P., Golębiowski M., Stepnowski P., Och ocka J.R., 2009: HS-SPME/GC analysis reveals the population variability of terpene contents in Juniperus communis needles. - Chemical Biodiversity, 6: 2290-2301.Google Scholar

  • Garcia D., Zamora R., Gomez J.M., Jordano P., Hodar J.A., 2000: Geographical variation in seed production, predation and abortion in Juniperuscommunis throughout its range in Europe. - Journal of Ecology, 88: 436-446.Google Scholar

  • Gonny M., Cavaleiro C., Salgueiro L., Casanova J., 2006: Analysis of Juniperus communis ssp. alpina needle, berry, wood and root oils by combination of GC, GC/MS and 13C-NMR. - Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 21: 99-106.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Grubb P.J., Lee W.G., Koll mann J., Wilson J.B., 1996: Interaction of irradiance and soil nutrient supply on growth of seedlings of ten European tall-shrub species and Fagus sylvatica. - Journal of Ecology, 84: 827-840.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hall quist M., Wängberg I., Ljungström E., 1997: Atmospheric fate of carbonyl oxidation products originating from α-pinene and Δ3-carene: Determination of rate of reaction with OH and NO3 radicals, UV absorption cross sections, and vapour pressures. - Environmental Science and Technology, 31: 3166-3172.Google Scholar

  • Humph rey J.W., 1996: Introduction of native ground flora species to a pine plantation in NE Scotland. - Aspects of Applied Biology, 44: 9-16.Google Scholar

  • Jordan M.J., Martinez R.M., Martinez C., Monino I ., Sotomayor J.A., 2009: Polyphenolic extract and essential oil quality of Thymus zygis ssp. gracilis shrubs cultivated under different watering levels. - Industrial Crops and Products, 29: 145-153.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Klõšeiko J., 2003: Relationship between the light environment and carbohydrates in needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) on a dune. - Forestry Studies/ Metsanduslikud uurimused, 39: 50-57.Google Scholar

  • Leite A.M., Lima E.O., Souza E.L., Diniz M.F.F.M., Trajano V.N., Medeiros I .A., 2007: Inhibitory effect of β-pinene, α-pinene and eugenol on the growth of potential infections endocarditis causing Gram-positive bacteria. - Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 43: 121-125.Google Scholar

  • Ložienė K., Labokas J., Venskutonis P.R., Maždžierienė R., 2010: Chromatographic evaluation of the composition of essential oil and α-pinene enantiomers in Juniperus communis L. berries during ripening. - Journal of Essential Oil Research, 22: 453-458.Google Scholar

  • Mandre M., 2003: Conditions for mineral nutrition and content of nutrients in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) on dunes in Southwest Estonia. - Forestry Studies, 39: 32-42.Google Scholar

  • Mandre M., Ots K., 2003: The growth of needles and shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) on a sandy dune. - Forestry Studies, 39: 58-64.Google Scholar

  • Manninen A.M., Tarhanen S., Vuorinen M., Kainulainen P., 2002: Comparing the variation of needle and wood terpenoids in Scots pine provenances. - Journal of Chemical Ecology, 28: 211-228.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Marongiu B., Porcedda S., Piras A., Sanna G., Murreddu M., Loddo R., 2006: Extraction of Juniperuscommunis L. ssp. nana Willd. essential oil by supercritical carbon dioxide. - Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 21: 148-154.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Navasaitis M., 2004: Lietuvos dendrologija. - Vilnius.Google Scholar

  • Navasaitis M., Ozolinčius R., Smaliukas D., Balevičienė J., 2003: Lietuvos dendroflora. - Kaunas.Google Scholar

  • Niinemets Ü., Ell sworth D.S., Lukjanova A., Tobias M., 2001: Site fertility and the morphological and photosynthetic acclimation of Pinus sylvestris needles to light. - Tree Physiology, 21: 1231-1244.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Och ocka J.R., Asztemborska M., Zook D.R., Sybilska D., Perez G., Ossicini L., 1997: Enantiomers of monoterpenic hydrocarbons in essential oils from Juniperus communis. - Phytochemistry, 44: 869-873.Google Scholar

  • Persson M., Sjödin K., Borg-Karlson A.K., Norin T ., Ekberg I., 1996: Relative amounts and enantiomeric compositions of monoterpene hydrocarbons in xylem and needles of Picea abies. - Phytochemistry, 42: 1289-1297.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Phill ips M.A., Savage T.J., Croteau R., 1999: Monoterpene Syntheses of Loblolly Pine (Pinustaeda). Produce Pinene Isomers and Enantiomers. - Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 372: 197-204.Google Scholar

  • Pohj ola J., Hiltunen R., Sch antz M.V., 1989: Variation and inheritance of terpenes in scots pine. - Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 4: 121-124.Google Scholar

  • Raison R.J., Myers B.J., Benson M.L., 1992: Dynamics of Pinus radiata foliage in relation to water and nitrogen stress. I. Needle production and properties. - Forest Ecology and Management, 52: 139-158.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Rook E.J.S., 2006: Juniperus communis, Common Juniper - http://www.rook.org/earl/bwca/nature/shrubs/juniperuscom.html. [accessed 22 04 2013].Google Scholar

  • Sangwan N.S., Farooqi A.H.A., Shabih F., Sangwan R .S., 2001: Regulation of essential oil production in plants. - Plant Growth Regulation, 34: 3-21.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Semiz G., Heijari J., Isik K.J., Holopainen J.K., 2007: Variation in needle terpenoids among Pinus sylvestris L. (Pinaceae) provenances from Tur key. - Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 35: 652-661.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Shahmir F., Ahmadi L., Mirza M., Korori S.A.A., 2003: Secretory elements of leafs and berries of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis and its volatile constituents. - Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 18: 425-428.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Shanjani P.S., Mirza M., Calagari M., Adams R.P., 2010: Effects of drying and harvest season on the essential oil composition from foliage and berries of Juniperus excelsa. - Industrial Crops and Products, 32: 83-87.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Slavėnas J., Ražinskaitė D., 1962: Fitoncidinių medžiagų ir kadagio aliejaus susikaupimo Juniperuscommunis L. organuose dinamika. - Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the Lithuanian SSR, 27: 115-134.Google Scholar

  • Thomas P.A., Barghathi E.M., Polwart A., 2007: Biological Flora of the British Isles: Juniperuscommunis (L.). - Journal of Ecology, 95: 1404-1440.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Williams J., 2004: Organic Trace Gases in the Atmosphere: An overview. - Environmental Chemistry, 1: 125-136. CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2013-07-09

Published in Print: 2013-06-01


Citation Information: Botanica Lithuanica, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 37–47, ISSN (Print) 2029-932X, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/botlit-2013-0005.

Export Citation

This content is open access.

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in