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Botanica Lithuanica

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Variation of Chemical and Morphological Characters of Leaves and Unripe Cones in Juniperus Communis

Vaida Vaičiulytė
  • Nature Research Centre, Institute of Botany, Žaliųjų Ežerų Str. 49, LT-08406 Vilnius, Lithuania
  • Other articles by this author:
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/ Kristina Ložienė
  • Corresponding author
  • Nature Research Centre, Institute of Botany, Žaliųjų Ežerų Str. 49, LT-08406 Vilnius, Lithuania
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Published Online: 2013-07-09 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/botlit-2013-0005


The variation of content of essential oil and pinene isomers and morphological parameters of leaves and unripe cones in Juniperus communis L. was studied. Leaves and cones were collected separate from 110 J. communis individuals in 11 different habitats throughout Lithuania. Essential oils were analysed by capillary gas chromatography (GC). The study showed more intensive essential oil accumulation and higher intraspecific variation of essential oil amount in unripe cones than in leaves. Significant differences between α- and β- pinene amounts were observed in J. communis. β-Pinene was detected in much higher quantities than α-pinene. Positive correlation was detected between pinene isomers in cones and leaves (r = 0.44, p < 0.05 and r = 0.50, p < 0.05, respectively) of the same tree showing pinene isomers common biosynthetic pathway. Significant differences between populations were characteristic of J. communis according to leaf length, unripe cones mass and essential oil yield in leaves, however, significant correlation was established between essential oil yield of leaves and habitat illumination (r = -0.67, p < 0.05) and soil acidity (r = -0.80, p < 0.05) only.


Buvo tirtas paprastojo kadagio (Juniperus communis) lapų bei neprinokusių kankorėžėlių cheminių ir morfologinių parametrų įvairavimas tarppopuliaciniame ir individų lygiuose. Lapai ir kankorėžėliai buvo surinkti atskirai nuo 110 individų iš dešimties ekologiškai skirtingų augaviečių Lietuvoje. Eterinių aliejų analizė atlikta dujų chromatografijos metodu. Tyrimai parodė, kad eterinio aliejaus daugiau susikaupia ir jų kiekis labiau įvairuoja neprinokusiuose kankorėžėliuose nei lapuose. Nustatyti dideli pineno izomerų kiekio skirtumai: lapuose ir kankorėžėliuose β-pineno buvo atitinkamai 26 ir 32 kartus mažiau nei α-pineno. Nustatyti teigiami koreliaciniai ryšiai tarp pineno izomerų kiekio kankorėžėliuose (r = 0,44, p < 0,05) ir lapuose (r = 0,50, p < 0,05) rodo, kad egzistuoja bendras α- ir β-pineno biosintezės kelias. Nustatyta patikima teigiama koreliacija tarp lapų ilgio ir lapų masės (r = 0,44, p < 0,05). Statistinė analizė parodė, kad J. communis lapų ilgiui, neprinokusių kankorėžėlių masei ir eterinio aliejaus kiekiui lapuose yra būdingi patikimai dideli tarppopuliaciniai skirtumai. Tačiau statistiškai patikimi koreliaciniai ryšiai nustatyti tik tarp eterinio aliejaus kiekio lapuose ir augavietės apšviestumo (r = -0,67, p < 0,05) bei dirvožemio rūgštingumo (r = -0,80, p < 0,05).

Keywords: Juniperus communis; leaves; unripe cones; essential oils; pinene isomers; morphological and chemical variation; abiotic factors

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About the article

Published Online: 2013-07-09

Published in Print: 2013-06-01

Citation Information: Botanica Lithuanica, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 37–47, ISSN (Print) 2029-932X, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/botlit-2013-0005.

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