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Significance of radical oxygen production in sorus development and zoospore germination in Saccharina japonica (Phaeophyceae)
We investigated production of radical oxygen species (ROS) in sorus development of sporophyte discs and during zoospore germination of Saccharina japonica (Phaeophyceae) using the fluorescent dye 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). Quantitative analysis of ROS showed high intracellular production during the stages of zoosporangium formation when paraphyses elongated. In this stage, remarkable ROS release was observed. ROS production was also observed histologically (under a fluorescence microscope) in the elongating paraphyses and the sorus zoosporangia. The sorus had significantly higher phenol content, antioxidant capacity and ROS scavenging enzyme activities (ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase) than adjacent non-sorus blade sectors. Thus, intracellular ROS scavenging mechanisms are active during ROS production in sorus formation. In contrast, iodine content was lower in the sorus than in the adjacent non-sorus tissues, suggesting the existence of an antioxidant defense mechanism based on iodine efflux. We demonstrated that ROS production is an important phenomenon in the reproduction of the S. japonica sporophyte. Furthermore, ROS were also observed in the zoospore germination processes. We discuss the physiological and ecological roles of ROS production in sorus formation and zoospore germination.
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