Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Botanica Marina

Editor-in-Chief: Dring, Matthew J.

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 0.919
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.336

CiteScore 2018: 1.22

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.399
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.672

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 60, Issue 5


Gracilaria coppejansii sp. nov. (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta), a new flattened species from the Andaman coast of southern Thailand

Narongrit Muangmai
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Fishery Biology, Faculty of Fisheries, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Khanjanapaj Lewmanomont
  • Department of Fishery Biology, Faculty of Fisheries, Kasetsart University, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Anchana Prathep
  • Seaweed and Seagrass Research Unit, Excellence Center for Biodiversity of Peninsula Thailand, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkla 90112, Thailand
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Ryuta Terada
  • United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Kagoshima University, Korimoto 1-21-24, Kagoshima City, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Giuseppe C. Zuccarello
  • School of Biological Science, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140, New Zealand
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2017-07-29 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bot-2017-0028


Studies of the taxonomy and diversity of flattened Gracilaria species which occur commonly in coastal areas of Thailand are few and underestimate species richness. Recently, flattened Gracilaria plants were collected along the west coast of southern Thailand (Andaman Sea). We describe a new flattened Gracilaria species, Gracilaria coppejansii Muangmai, Lewmanomont, Prathep, Terada et Zuccarello sp. nov., from Phuket Island on the basis of comparative morphology and rbcL sequence analyses of these samples. The new species is mainly characterized by thalli with dichotomous branching, numerous proliferations on the blade margin of female gametophytes, textorii-type spermatangial conceptacles and a few nutritive filamentous cells in mature cystocarps. Morphologically, G. coppejansii most closely resembles Gracilaria textorii but differs in some morpho-anatomical characteristics of the blade and female reproductive structures. rbcL sequence analyses also clearly demonstrated that G. coppejansii was genetically distinct from other flat Gracilaria species. Gracilaria coppejansii was phylogenetically positioned close to Gracilaria lantaensis, a recently described flattened species also on the west coast of Thailand.

This article offers supplementary material which is provided at the end of the article.

Keywords: Gracilariaceae; macroalgae; rbcL; Rhodophyta; taxonomy


  • Bird, C.J. 1995. A review of recent taxonomic concepts and developments in the Gracilariaceae (Rhodophyta). J. Appl. Phycol. 7: 255–267.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Bird, C.J. and J. McLachlan. 1982. Some underutilized taxonomic criteria in Gracilaria (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales). Bot. Mar. 25: 557–562.Google Scholar

  • Bird, C.J., E.L. Rice, C.A. Murphy and M.A. Ragan. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships in the Gracilariales (Rhodophyta) as determined by 18S rDNA sequences. Phycologia 31: 510–522.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Byrne, K., G.C. Zuccarello, J.A. West, M.L. Liao and G.T. Kraft. 2002. Gracilaria species (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta) from southeastern Australia, including a new species, Gracliaria perplexa sp. nov.: morphology, molecular relationships and agar content. Phycol. Res. 50: 295–311.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Chang, C.F. and B.M. Xia. 1963. Polycavernosa, a new genus of the Gracilariaceae. Studia Mar. Sin. 3: 119–126.Google Scholar

  • Chang, C.F. and B.M. Xia. 1964. A comparative study of Gracilaria foliifera (Forssk.) Børgs. and Gracilaria textorii (Suring.) De Toni. Acta Bot. Sinica 12: 201–209.Google Scholar

  • Destombe, C., M. Valero and M.L. Guillemin. 2010. Delineation of two sibling red algal species, Gracilaria gracilis and Gracilaria dura (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta), using multiple DNA markers: resurrection of the species G. dura previously described in the northern Atlantic 200 years ago. J. Phycol. 46: 720–727.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Freshwater, D.W. and J. Rueness. 1994. Phylogenetic relationships of some European Gelidium (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta) species based on rbcL nucleotide sequence analysis. Phycologia 33: 187–194.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Guiry, M.D. and M.T. Freamhainn. 1986. Biosystematics of Gracilaria foliifera (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta). Nord. J. Bot. 5: 629–37.Google Scholar

  • Guiry, M.D. and G.M. Guiry. 2017. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. http://www.algaebase.org; searched on 25 Feb 2017.

  • Gurgel, C.F.D. and S. Fredericq. 2004. Systematics of the Gracilariaceae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta): a critical assessment based on rbcL sequence analysis. J. Phycol. 40: 138–159.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gurgel, C.F.D., S. Fredericq and J.N. Norris. 2004. Molecular systematic and taxonomy of flattened species of Gracilaria Greville (Gracilariaceae, Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) from the Western Atlantic. In: (I.A. Abbott and K.J. McDermid, eds.) Taxonomy of economic seaweed with reference to some Pacific species, vol. 9. The University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program, Honolulu. pp. 159–199.Google Scholar

  • Gurgel, C.F.D., S. Fredericq, J.N. Norris and Y. Yoneshigue-Vanentin. 2008. Two new flat species of Gracilaria (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) from Brazil: G. abyssalis sp. nov. and G. brasiliensis sp. nov. Phycologia 47: 249–264.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kim, M.S., E.C. Yang and S.M. Boo. 2006. Taxonomy and phylogeny of flattened species of Gracilaria (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta) from Korea based on morphology and protein coding plastid rbcL and psbA sequences. Phycologia 45: 520–528.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lewmanomont, K. 1994. The species of Gracilaria from Thailand. In: (I.A. Abbott, ed.) Taxonomy of economic seaweed with reference to some Pacific species, vol. 4. California Sea Grant College, La Jolla. pp. 135–148.Google Scholar

  • Lewmanomont, K. and A. Chirapart. 2004. Additional records of Gracilaria from Thailand. In: (I.A. Abbott and K.J. McDermid, eds.) Taxonomy of economic seaweed with reference to some Pacific species, vol. 9. The University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program, Honolulu. pp. 201–210.Google Scholar

  • Lin, S.M. and O. De Clerck. 2006. A new flattened species of Gracilaria (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) from Taiwan. Cryptogamie Algol. 27: 233–244.Google Scholar

  • Lyra, G.M., E.S. Costa, P.B. Jesus, J.C.G. Matos, T.A. Caires, M.C. Oliveira, E.C. Oliveira, Z. Xi, J.M.C. Nunes and C.C. Davis. 2015. Phylogeny of Gracilariaceae (Rhodophyta): evidence from plastid and mitochondrial nucleotide sequences. J. Phycol. 51: 356–366.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Millar, A.J.K. 1997. Some flattened species of Gracilaria from Australia. In: (I.A. Abbott, ed.) Taxonomy of economic seaweed with reference to some Pacific species, vol. 6. California Sea Grant College, La Jolla. pp. 111–123.Google Scholar

  • Muangmai, N., Y. Yamagishi, R. Terada and S. Kawagushi. 2012. A morphological and molecular study on the Gracilariaceae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) around the Hakata Bay, Northern Kyushu, Japan. J. Fac. Agr. Kyushu Univ. 57: 411–420.Google Scholar

  • Muangmai, N., G.C. Zuccarello, T. Noiraksa and K. Lewmanomont. 2014a. A new flat Gracilaria: Gracilaria lantaensis sp. nov. (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) from the Andaman coast of Thailand. Phycologia 53: 137–145.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Muangmai, N., Y. Yamagishi, G.C. Zuccarello, A. Chirapart and K. Lewmanomont. 2014b. Transferring Gracilaria irregularis (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta) from Thailand to Gracilariopsis based on morphological and molecular analyses. Phycol. Res. 62: 29–35.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Nam, K.W., C.A. Maggs, L. Mcivor and M.J. Stanhope. 2000. Taxonomy and phylogeny of Osmundea (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) in Atlantic Europe. J. Phycol. 36: 759–772.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Núñez Resendiz, M.L., K.M. Dreckmann, A. Sentíes, J. Díaz-Larrea and G.C. Zuccarello. 2015. Genetically recognizable but not morphologically: the cryptic nature of Hydropuntia cornea and H. usneoides (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) in the Yucatan Peninsula. Phycologia 54: 407–416.CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • Phang, S.M., H.Y. Yeong, E.T. Ganzon Fortes, K. Lewmanomont, A. Prathep, L.N. Hau, G.S. Gerung and K.S. Tan. 2016. Marine algae of the South China Sea bordered by Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. Raffles Bull. Zool. Suppl. 40: 13–59.Google Scholar

  • Rambaut, A. 2009. FigTree v1.3.1: tree figure drawing tool. Available from: http://tree.bio.ed.ac.uk/software/figtree/. Accessed June 5, 2016.

  • Rambaut, A. and A.J. Drummond. 2007. Tracer–MCMC Trace Analysis Tool Version v1.4. Available from: http://beast.bio.ed.ac.uk/Tracer. Accessed August 12, 2016.

  • Ronquist, F., M. Teslenko, P. van der Mark, D.L. Ayres, A. Darling, S. Hohna, B. Larget, L. Liu, M.A. Suchard and J.P. Huelsenbeck. 2012. MrBayes 3.2: efficient Bayesian phylogenetic inference and model choice across a large model space. Syst. Biol. 61: 539–542.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Sahu, N. and D. Sahoo. 2013. Study of morphology and agar contents in some important Gracilaria species of Indian coasts. Am. J. Plant Sci. 4: 52–59.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Tanabe, A.S. 2008. ‘Phylogears version 2’, software distributed by the author at http:// www.fifthdimension.jp/.

  • Tanabe, A.S. 2011. Kakusan4 and Aminosan: two programs for comparing nonpartitioned, proportional, and separate models for combined molecular phylogenetic analyses of multilocus sequence data. Mol. Ecol. Notes 11: 914–921.Google Scholar

  • Vos, R.A. 2003. Accelerated likelihood surface exploration: the likelihood ratchet. Syst. Biol. 52: 368–373.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Yamamoto, H. 1978. Systematical and anatomical study of the genus Gracilaria in Japan. Mem. Fac. Fish. Hokkaido Univ. 25: 97–152.Google Scholar

  • Zuccarello, G.C. and J.A. West. 2002. Phylogeography of the Bostrychia calliptera/B. pinnata complex (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) and divergence rates based on nuclear, mitochondrial and plastid DNA markers. Phycologia 41: 49–60.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Zuccarello, G.C., J.A. West, M. Kamiya and R.J. King. 1999. A rapid method to score plastid haplotypes in red seaweeds and its use in determining parental inheritance of haplotype plastids in the red alga Bostrychia (Ceramiales). Hydrobiologia 401: 207–214.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Narongrit Muangmai

Narongrit Muangmai earned his PhD degree in marine biology from Victoria University of Wellington. He presently works as a lecturer in the Department of Fishery Biology, Kasetsart University, Thailand. His major field of research includes the taxonomy, evolution and biogeography of marine macroalgae. His current research focuses on diversity and phylogeography of economically important red algal genus Gracilaria in the Southeast Asian region.

Khanjanapaj Lewmanomont

Khanjanapaj Lewmanomont is an emeritus professor of fishery biology at Kasetsart University. She obtained her MSc degree in fisheries from the University of Michigan. Her major research interests are on taxonomy, ecology and cultivation of marine algae. She is currently working in Plant Genetic Conservation Project under the Royal Initiation of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn (RSPG).

Anchana Prathep

Anchana Prathep leads the Seaweed and Seagrass Research Unit at Prince of Songkla University, Thailand. Her work focuses on seaweed and seagrass ecology and their ecosystem services. Recently, she has been trying to understand how much seaweeds and seagrasses contribute to carbon sequestration and storage, as well as how they respond to a changing world.

Ryuta Terada

Ryuta Terada is a professor at the United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Kagoshima University. His research is particularly focused on the diversity and ecophysiology of marine macroalgae in relation to climate change.

Giuseppe C. Zuccarello

Giuseppe C. Zuccarello is interested in the taxonomy, evolution and speciation of algae. His research has focused on mangrove-associate red algae of the genus Bostrychia and Caloglossa. He received his PhD degree from the University of California Berkeley. He has been president of the International Phycological Society and is currently an associate professor at Victoria University of Wellington. He has published over 130 peer-reviewed papers.

Received: 2017-03-22

Accepted: 2017-07-04

Published Online: 2017-07-29

Published in Print: 2017-08-28

Citation Information: Botanica Marina, Volume 60, Issue 5, Pages 533–541, ISSN (Online) 1437-4323, ISSN (Print) 0006-8055, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bot-2017-0028.

Export Citation

©2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.Get Permission

Supplementary Article Materials

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in