Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy

The Journal of National Veterinary Research Institute in Pulawy

4 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.462

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.235
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.364

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Acinetobacter johnsonii and Acinetobacter lwoffii - the emerging fish pathogens

Alicja Kozińska / Ewa Paździor / Agnieszka Pękala / Wiktor Niemczuk
  • Department of Epizootiology and Clinic of Bird and Exotic Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 50-366 Wroclaw, Poland
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2014-06-17 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/bvip-2014-0029


The aim of this study was to characterise Acinetobacter sp. isolated from fish. Eight isolates obtained from diseased rainbow trout and common carp cultured in Poland were analysed. The isolates were identified using API 20 NE system as Acinetobacter sp. Afterwards, they were identified by sequencing 16S rDNA gene fragment. The bacteria were identified as A. johnsonii (two isolates), A. lwoffii (two isolates), A. junii/johnsonii (one isolate), A. calcoaceticus (one isolate), and Acinetobacter sp. (two isolates). The drug resistance of isolates was examined. The majority of the isolates were resistant to ampicilin, amoxicillin, and cephalothin and all demonstrated sensitivity to fluoroquinolones, except of one isolate. Two isolates were selected for the experimental infection of trout and carp to confirm their pathogenicity. Experimentally infected fish showed disease symptoms similar to those observed in fish naturally infected with these bacteria. This is the first report concerning pathogenicity of A. johnsonii for rainbow trout and A. lwoffii for common carp. These bacteria were regarded as emerging opportunistic pathogens of fish farmed in Poland. Acinetobacter strains are commonly known as microorganisms transmitting the antibiotic resistance genes. Therefore, they might have a great impact on the resistance transfer in aquaculture.

Keywords: rainbow trout; common carp; Acinetobacter; emerging pathogens.


  • 1. Ahmadi H., Boroumand M.A., Anvari M.S., Karimi A., Moshtaghi N.: Left-sided endocarditis associated with multi- drug resistance Acinetobacter lwoffii. J Teh Univ Heart Cent 2009, 3, 189-192.Google Scholar

  • 2. Baumann P.: Isolation of Acinetobacter from soil and water. J Bacteriol 1968, 96, 39-42.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 3. Bergogne-Bérézin E., Towner K.J.: Acinetobacter spp. as nosocomial pathogens: microbiological, clinical, and epidemiological features. Clin Microbiol Rev 1996, 9, 148-165.Google Scholar

  • 4. Berlau J., Aucken H., Houang M., Epitt T.L.: Isolation of Acinetobacter spp. including A. baumannie from vegetables: Implications for hospital-acquired infections. J Hosp Infect 1999, 42, 201-204.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 5. Blossom D., Srinivasan A.: Drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex: an emerging nosocomial pathogen with few treatment options. Infect Dis Clin Pract 2008, 16, 1-3.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 6. Borrell N., Acinas S.G., Figueras M.J., Martínez-Murcia A.J.: Identification of Aeromonas clinical isolates by restriction fragment length polymorphism of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes. J Clin Microbiol 1997, 35, 1671-1674.Google Scholar

  • 7. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute: Methods for antimicrobial disk susceptibility testing of bacteria isolated from aquatic animals; approved guideline. CLSI document M42-A, 2006, vol. 26, no. 23 (ISBN 1-56238-611-5), USA.Google Scholar

  • 8. Čož-Rakovac R., Strunjak-Perović I., Popović N.T., Hacmanjek M., Šimpraga B., Teskeredžić E.: Health status of wild and cultured sea bass in the northern Adriatic Sea. Vet Med-Czech 2002, 47, 222-226.Google Scholar

  • 9. Dijkshoorn L., Nemec A., Seifert H.: An increasing threat in hospitals: multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Nat Rev Microbiol 2007, 5, 939-951.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 10. Doughari H.J., Ndakidemi P.A., Human I.S., Benade S.: The ecology, biology and pathogenesis of Acinetobacter spp.: an overview. Microb Environ 2011, 26, 101-112.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 11. El-Sayyad H.I., Zaki V.H., El-Shebly A.M., El-Badry D.A.: Studies on the effects of bacterial diseases on skin and gill structure of Clarias gariepinus in Dakahlia province, Egypt. Ann Biol Res 2010, 1, 106-118.Google Scholar

  • 12. Gennari M., Stegagno F.: Isolation and characterization of Acinetobacter calcoacetisus from raw, washed and frozen vegetables. Arch Vet Ital 1986, 37, 131-137.Google Scholar

  • 13. González C.J., Santos J.A., García-López M.L., Otero A.: Psychrobacters and related bacteria in freshwater fish. J Food Prot 2000, 63, 315-321.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 14. Gospodarek E., Ziółkowski G.: Antibiotic-resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii occurring in Poland. Epidemiol Rev 2000, 54, 88-96.Google Scholar

  • 15. Grawiński E., Podolska M., Kozińska A., Pękala A.: Bacteria pathogenic for fish and humans isolated from Baltic cod. Życie Wet 2009, 84, 409-416.Google Scholar

  • 16. Guardabassi L., Dalsgaard A., Raffatellu M., Olsen J.E.: Increase in the prevalence of oxolinic acid resistant Acinetobacter spp. observed in a stream receiving the effluent from a freshwater trout farm following the treatment with oxolinic acid-medicated feed. Aquaculture 2000, 188, 205-218.Google Scholar

  • 17. Jakoniuk P., Wieczorek P., Sacha P., Zalewska M., Leszczyńska K.: In vitro sensitivity to cefoperazone/sulbactam of multiresistant strains of Acinetobacter spp. Zakażenia 2007, 2, 50-54.Google Scholar

  • 18. Joly-Guillou M.L.: Clinical impact and pathogenicity of Actinetobacter. Eur Soc Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2005, 11, 868-873.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 19. Juni E.: Genus II. Acinetobacter. In: Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, edited by D.J. Brenner, N.R. Krieg, J.T. Staley, Springer, Michigan State University, USA, 2005 vol. 2 (part B), pp. 425-437.Google Scholar

  • 20. Nowak J., Pacholczyk A., Petroniec V., Dziedzicka B., Zwolska Z.: The results of molecular epidemiological investigations in patients infected with strains of the genus Acinetobacter. Pneumonol Alergol Pol 2010, 78, 386-391.Google Scholar

  • 21. Okamura B., Feist S.W.: Emerging diseases in freshwater systems. Freshwater Biol 2011, 56, 627-637.Web of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 22. Park Y.K., Peck K.R., Cheong H.S., Chung D.R., Song J.H., Ko K.S.: Extreme drug resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii infections in intensive care units, South Korea. EID J 2009, 15, 1325-1327.Google Scholar

  • 23. Pękala A.: New risks of bacterial infections in carp. In: Health care in the fishing economy, edited by J. Żelazny, Nat Vet Res Inst Pulawy, 2007, pp. 59-64.Google Scholar

  • 24. Peleg A.Y., Seifert H., Paterson D.L.: Acinetobacter baumannii: emergence of a successful pathogen. Clin Microbiol Rev 2008, 21, 538-582.CrossrefPubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 25. Rauta P.R., Kumar K., Sahoo P.K.: Emerging new multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogen, Acinetobacter baumannii associated with snakehead Channa striatus eye infection. Curr Sci 2011, 101, 548-553.Google Scholar

  • 26. Savov E., Chankova D., Vatcheva R., Dinev N.: In vitro investigation of the susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from clinical specimens to ampicillin/sulbactam aloe and in combination with amikacin. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2002, 20, 390-392.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 27. Tega L., Raieta K., Ottaviani D., Russo G.L., Blanco G., Carraturo A.: Catheter-related bacteremia and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter lwoffii. EID J 2007, 13, 355-356.Google Scholar

  • 28. Turton J.F., Shah J., Ozongwu C., Pike R.: Incidence of Acinetobacter species other than A. baumannii among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter: Evidence for emerging species. J Clin Microbiol 2010, 48, 1445-1449.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 29. Xia L., Xiong D., Gu Z., Xu Z., Chen C., Xie J., Xu P.: Recovery of Acinetobacter baumannii from diseased channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in China. Aquaculture 2008, 284, 285-288.Google Scholar

  • 30. Yonar M.E., Karahan M., Kan N., Yonar S., Sağlam N: A study of Acinetobacter sp. infection in some cultured rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Kahramanmaras. J Fisheries Sci 2010, 4, 287-293.Google Scholar

  • 31. Zacharow I., Snoch-Bajek J., Niemczuk W.: Microbiological evaluation of farmed carp from particular ponds in province Dolnośląskie. Acta Sci Pol Med Vet 2010, 9, 33-38. Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2013-10-30

Accepted: 2014-06-02

Published Online: 2014-06-17

Published in Print: 2014-06-01

Citation Information: Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy, Volume 58, Issue 2, Pages 193–199, ISSN (Online) 2300-3235, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/bvip-2014-0029.

Export Citation

© National Veterinary Research Institute in Pulawy. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Natacha S. Hogan, Karen L. Thorpe, and Michael R. van den Heuvel
Environmental Pollution, 2018, Volume 234, Page 769
Jie Li, Jinglong Cao, Xu Wang, Ning Liu, Weimin Wang, and Yi Luo
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2017, Volume 101, Number 16, Page 6459
S. Ciulli, E. Volpe, R. Sirri, P.L. Passalacqua, F. Cesa Bianchi, P. Serratore, and L. Mandrioli
Veterinary Microbiology, 2016, Volume 191, Page 27

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in