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Chinese as a Second Language Research

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基于真实语料的 “是…的” 构式初级汉语教学设计

Teaching the shi…de construction with authentic materials in elementary Chinese

Danjie Su
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of World Languages, Literatures & Cultures, University of Arkansas, Kimpel Hall 425, Fayetteville, AR72701, USA
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/ Hongyin Tao
  • Department of Asian Languages and Cultures, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), 290 Royce Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1540, USA
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Published Online: 2018-04-26 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/caslar-2018-0005


“是…的” 句是初级汉语教学常见语法格式。该句式语义语用功能较抽象,句法上也常有 “可用可不用” 的情况,是汉语习得难点之一。本文通过基于影视会话的 “是…的” 句教学设计,例示如何使用真实语料教初级汉语,尤其是语法。本文将 “是…的” 句最典型的表确信的构式作为教学重点,展示如何将含有目标语法格式的真实语料转化为面向初级阶段的教学材料、课堂活动设计和测试材料。本文表明,初级阶段可使用真实语料来教二语难点语法。


This study provides an L2 pedagogical design to illustrate how and why authentic materials should and can be utilized in beginning-level grammar teaching – even of those most elusive grammatical constructions. In particular, we discuss the pedagogy of the so-called shi…de grammatical construction in Mandarin Chinese, one of the most challenging grammatical constructions for L2 learners of Chinese. We use spoken language data to demonstrate how this grammatical construction is used at the discourse level, how to engage students in critical thinking about its use or non-use in context, and what motivates the choices of different grammatical constructions and the implications of such choices for L2 teaching and learning. Shi…de has been regarded as a focus, emphasis, or highlighting device. The construction itself consists of a copular (shi) plus de, which is both a nominalization marker and an utterance-final particle. Due to the multifaceted nature of the components and the versatility of the structure, this construction has been analyzed from multiple perspectives, with controversies on its nature, function, and optionality in use. In most elementary Chinese textbooks, shide is introduced as a basic grammatical feature of modern Chinese and with conflicting or vague descriptions. Most problematically, this grammatical construction is often taught in isolation and devoid of any context, leaving learners confused about when to use it. As a result, it is not surprising to see that learners do not often use this construction when the context calls for it – as a series of SLA studies have found. This shows that the acquisition of grammatical constructions such as the shi…de construction is not merely a structural issue. Rather, we believe that the mastery of discourse pragmatics plays an important role in the acquisition of L2 grammar. In particular, the issue of teaching grammar in context should be given primary emphasis in grammar pedagogy. This holds true regardless of the level of language proficiency. We argue that at the beginning level, it is particularly crucial to expose L2 learners to the way L1 speakers use a given grammatical construction for a matching context, and that authentic materials, which are produced for L1 speakers, should and can be utilized to serve such purposes. To this aim, we demonstrate how authentic materials can be used effectively in beginner level Mandarin Chinese to teach the subtleties of the usage of the shi…de construction. We incorporate corpus-based studies of spoken discourse and attempt to prioritize the observed patterns with different frequencies in discourse in our pragmatically-informed pedagogy. We contend that shi…de as a complex construction has preferred components and is typically used in persuasive discourse contexts. We present a usage-based construction-based analysis of the typical patterns of shi…de and outline major learning goals according to the difficulties that learners often encounter with regard to the acquisition of shi…de. Based on these observations, we design our teaching unit with movie and TV-show clips to enhance 1) the leaner’s understanding of the common discourse contexts in which shi…de can be felicitously used; and 2) the common components that go in this construction. A major part of the paper is dedicated to the actual development of instructional guidelines on implementing authentic materials in a classroom setting, from effectively utilizing videos to designing instructional activities and conducting assessments. The instructional process combines a sketch of structural properties with a semantic and discourse-pragmatic analysis, all of which are based on commonly found features in actual discourse: Step I illustrates the persuasive discourse context, Step II focuses on the use of shi…de with adjectival components, and Step III deals with the use of shi…de with verbal components. For sample assessment activities, we include materials such as language and context matching, use of language structure to convey specific meanings, and interactional use of shi…de in conversation. In short, our discourse research-informed pedagogy provides evidence that authentic materials can be used effectively for grammar teaching at the beginner level. Based on the case of shi…de, we argue that for L2 learners, an understanding of language structures at the discourse level is crucial to a proper understanding and use of the target language. (All relevant video clips used in this article can be found from this website: http://clicresearch.rice.edu/caslar-authentic-spoken-language/#de)

关键词: 是…的; 真实语料; 教学设计; 初级阶段; 语法教学; 汉语作为第二语言

Keywords: shi…de; authentic materials; pedagogical design; elementary level; grammar teaching; Chinese as a second language


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About the article

Danjie Su

苏 丹洁,博士(洛杉矶加州大学,2017,师从陶红印先生),美国阿肯色大学中文部助理教授,主要研究二语教学、汉语语法、话语语用语言学、社会文化语言学。著述刊于 Discourse Studies, Journal of Pragmatics, Chinese Language and Discourse, Journal of Chinese Linguistics等。《国际汉语》创刊编辑,Journal of Asian Pacific Communication 顾问编委。

Danjie Su, PhD (UCLA, 2017), Visiting Assistant Professor of Chinese, University of Arkansas. Research Interests: applied linguistics (SLA), Chinese linguistics, discourse pragmatics, and sociocultural linguistics. She has published in journals such as Discourse Studies, Journal of Pragmatics, Chinese Language and Discourse, and Journal of Chinese Linguistics. She is a founding co-editor of Guoji Hanyu and an Editorial Advisory Board member of Journal of Asian Pacific Communication.

Hongyin Tao

陶 红印,博士 (圣塔芭芭拉加州大学), 美国洛杉矶加州大学亚洲语言文化系教授、中文部主任,同时兼任美国教育部资助的宾州州立大学高级汉语教学研究项目主任及台湾师范大学英语学系讲座教授。曾任(2014 年度)美国中文教师学会会长。目前已发表的语言学和语言教学论著有一百二十多种

Hongyin Tao, PhD (University of California, Santa Barbara), is Professor of Chinese language and linguistics and applied linguistics and coordinator of the Chinese language program at UCLA. His areas of expertise include Mandarin discourse and grammar, corpus linguistics, sociocultural linguistics, and applied linguistics. Some of his recent publications include Integrating Linguistics Research with Chinese Language Teaching and Learning (John Benjamin, 2016), Chinese under Globalization (World Scientific, 2011) and Working with Spoken Chinese (Penn State University, 2011).

Published Online: 2018-04-26

Published in Print: 2018-04-25

Citation Information: Chinese as a Second Language Research, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 111–140, ISSN (Online) 2193-2271, ISSN (Print) 2193-2263, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/caslar-2018-0005.

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