Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Change and Adaptation in Socio-Ecological Systems

Climate Change, Social Changes, Technological Development

Ed. by Inostroza, Luis / Fürst, Christine

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Fit between Conservation Instruments and Local Social Systems: Cases of Co-management and Payments for Ecosystem Services

Simo Sarkki / Lauri Rantala / Timo P. Karjalainen
Published Online: 2015-12-17 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/cass-2015-0007


We draw on the concept of ‘fit’ to understand how co-management and Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) as governance instruments could better acknowledge local social complexities. Achieving ‘participatory fit’ requires well-designed and fair processes, which enhance local acceptance towards the implemented rules. Thus, such fit can contribute to establishing new institutions in conservation governance. However, previous literature on participation has had strong focus on properties of decision-making processes, which often neglects the question on how local realities effect on local people’s ability and willingness to participate in the work of governance instruments. We approach ‘participatory fit’ by identifying six properties of heterogeneous local social systems that governance instruments need to acknowledge to nurture balanced bottom-up participation: 1) economic resources and structures, 2) relationships to land, 3) level of education, 4) relationships between diverse actors, 5) divergent problem definitions, and 6) local identities. We discuss related sources of misfits and develop proposals on how conservation instruments could function as bridging organizations facilitating polycentric institutional structures that fit better to the social systems they are intended to govern. Such hybridization of governance could avoid pitfalls of considering one particular instrument (e.g. co-management or PES) as a panacea able to create win-win solutions.

Keywords: Polycentric institutions; Social justice of conservation; social Fit; Participatory fit; Local Heterogeneity; co-management; Payments for Ecosystem Services


  • Adams, M. 2008. Foundational myths: country and conservation in Australia. Transforming Cultures eJournal 3(1): 291-317.Google Scholar

  • Adams, W.M., and J. Hutton. 2007. People, parks and poverty: political ecology and biodiversity conservation. Conservation & Society 5(2): 147-183.Google Scholar

  • Adhikari, B., and A. Agrawal. 2013. Understanding the Social and Ecological Outcomes of PES Projects: A Review and an Analysis. Conservation & Society 11(4): 359 - 374.Google Scholar

  • Adhikari, B., S. Di Falco, and J.C. Lovett. 2004. Household characteristics and forest dependency: evidence from common property forest management in Nepal. Ecological Economics 48(2): 245-257.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Adhikari, B., and J.C. Lovett. 2006a. Transaction costs and community-based natural resource management in Nepal. Journal of Environmental Management 78(1): 5-15.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Adhikari, B., and J.C. Lovett. 2006b. Institutions and collective action: does heterogeneity matter in community-based management? Journal of Development Studies 42(3): 426-445.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Agarwal, B. 2009. Gender and forest conservation: the impact of women’s participation in community forest governance. Ecological Economics 68(11): 2785-2799.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Agarwal, B. 2010. Does women’s proportional strength affect their participation? Governing local forests in South Asia. World Development 38(1): 98-112.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Agrawal, A. 2001. Common property institutions and sustainable governance of resources. World Development 29(10): 1649-1672.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Agrawal, A., and C.C. Gibson. 1999. Enchantment and disenchantment: the role of community in natural resource conservation. World Development 27(4): 629-649.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Agrawal, A., and S. Goyal. 2001. Group size and collective action: third-party monitoring in common-pool resources. Comparative Political Studies 34(1): 63-93.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Agrawal, A., and K. Gupta. 2005. Decentralization and participation: the governance of common pool resources in Nepal’s Terai. World Development 33(7): 1101-1114.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Agrawal, A., and E. Ostrom. 2001. Collective action, property rights and devolution of forest and protected area management. In: Collective action, property rights and devolution of natural resource management: exchange of knowledge and implications for policy (eds. Meinzen-Dick, R., A. Knox, and M. Di Gregorio). Pp. 75-109. Feldafing, Germany: DSE.Google Scholar

  • Ajayi, O.C., B.K. Jack, and B. Leimona. 2012. Auction design for the private provision of public goods in developing countries: lessons from payments for environmental services in Malawi and Indonesia. World Development 40(6): 1213-1223.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Andersson, K.P., and E. Ostrom. 2008. Analyzing decentralized resource regimes from a polycentric perspective. Policy Science 41(1): 71-93.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Andrade, G.S., and J.R Rhodes. 2012. Protected areas and local communities: an inevitable partnership toward successful conservation strategies? Ecology & Society 17(4): 14.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Araral, E. 2009. What explains collective action in the commons? Theory and evidence from the Philippines. World Development 37(3): 687-697.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Armitage, D., R. Plummer, F. Berkes, R. Arthur, A. Charles, I. Davidson-Hunt, A. Diduck, et al. 2009. Adaptive co-management for social-ecological complexity. Frontiers in Ecology 7(2): 95-102.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Asquith, N.M., M.T. Vargas & S. Wunder. 2008. Selling two environmental services: In-kind payments for bird habitat and watershed protection in Los Negros, Bolivia. Ecological Economics 65: 675-684.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Baland, J. M., and J. P. Platteau. 2007. Collective action on the commons: The role of inequality. In: Inequality, cooperation, and environmental sustainability (eds. Baland, J.M., P. Bardhan, and S. Bowles). Pp. 10-35. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar

  • Baral, N. 2012. Empirical analysis of factors explaining local governing bodies’ trust for administering agencies in community-based conservation. Journal of Environmental Management 103(30): 41-50.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Baral, N., and J.T. Heinen. 2007. Decentralization and people’s participation in conservation: A comparative study from the Western Terai of Nepal. The International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology 14(5): 520-531.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Behera, B. 2009. Explaining the performance of state-community joint forest management in India. Ecological Economics 69(1): 177-185.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Berkes, F. 2007. Community-based conservation in a globalized world. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104(39): 15188-15193.Google Scholar

  • Berkes, F. 2009. Evolution of co-management: role of knowledge generation, bridging organizations and social learning. Journal of Environmental Management 90(5): 1692-1702.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Berkes, F., & Folke. C. 1998. Linking social and ecological systems for resilience and sustainability. In F. Berkes, C. Folke, and J. Colding (eds.). Linking social and ecological systems: management practices and social mechanisms for building resilience, 1-25. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Bertzky, B., C. Corrigan, J. Kemsey, S. Kenney, C. Ravilious, C. Besançon, and N. Burgess. 2012. Protected planet report 2012: tracking progress towards global targets for protected areas. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN; Cambridge, UK: UNEP-WCMC.Google Scholar

  • Borrini-Feyerabend, G., A. Kothari, and G. Oviedo. 2004. Indigenous and local communities and protected areas: towards equity and enhanced conservation. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN; Cambridge, UK: UNEP-WCMC.Google Scholar

  • Boyce, J. 2002. The political economy of the environment. UK: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar

  • Bozmoski, A., and N. Hultman. 2010. Participant perceptions of risk and benefit in carbon forestry: evidence from central Tanzania. Journal of Environment and Development 19(1): 4-27.Google Scholar

  • Brockington, D. 2004. Community conservation, inequality and injustice: myths of power in protected area management. Conservation & Society 2(2): 411-432.Google Scholar

  • Brown, K. 2003. Integrating conservation and development: a case of institutional misfit. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1(9): 479-487.Google Scholar

  • Bruner, A., R. Naidoo, and A. Balmford. 2008. Review of the costs of conservation and priorities for action. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/biodiversity/economics/pdf/costs_report.pdf. Accessed on December 4, 2013.Google Scholar

  • Caizhen, L. 2010. Water policies in China: a critical perspective on gender equity. Gender, Technology & Development 13(3): 319-339.Google Scholar

  • Carlsson, L., and F. Berkes. 2005. Co-management: concepts and methodological implications. Journal of Environmental Management 75(1): 65-76.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Castro, A.P., and E. Nielsen. 2001. Indigenous people and co-management: implications for conflict management. Environmental Science & Policy 4(4-5): 229-239.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Chen, X., F. Lupi, G. He, and J. Liu. 2009. Linking social norms to efficient conservation investment in payments for ecosystem services. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106(28): 1812-1817.Google Scholar

  • Chhatre, A., and A. Agrawal. 2008. Forest commons and local enforcement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(36): 13286-13291.Google Scholar

  • Coombess, B., and S. Hill. 2005. “Na whenua, na Tuhoe. Ko D.o.C. te partner”-Prospects for Comanagement of Te Urewera National Park. Society and Natural Resources 18(2): 135-152.Google Scholar

  • Cornwall, A. 2008. Unpacking ‘participation’: models, meanings and practices. Community Development Journal 43(3): 269-283.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Corbera, E. 2012. Problematizing REDD+ as an experiment in payments for ecosystem services. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 4(6): 612-619.Google Scholar

  • Corbera, E. 2005. Bringing development into carbon forestry markets: challenges and outcomes of small-scale carbon forestry activities in Mexico. In: Carbon forestry: who will benefit? (eds. Murdiyarso, D. and H. Herawati). Pp. 42-56. Bogor: Center for International Forestry Research.Google Scholar

  • Corbera, E., and K. Brown. 2010. Offsetting benefits? Analyzing access to forest carbon. Environment and Planning A, 42(7): 1739-1761.Google Scholar

  • Corbera, E., and K. Brown. 2008. Building institutions to trade ecosystem services: marketing forest carbon in Mexico. World Development 36(10): 1956-1979.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Corbera, E., C. González Soberanis, and K. Brown. 2009. Institutional dimensions of Payments for Ecosystem Services: an analysis of Mexico’s carbon forestry programme. Ecological Economics 68(3): 743-761.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Corbera, E., N. Kosoy, and M.M. Tuna. 2007. Equity implications of marketing ecosystem services in protected areas and rural communities: Case studies from Meso-America. Global Environmental Change 17(3-4): 365-380.Google Scholar

  • Cox, M., G. Arnold, and S. Villamayor Tomás. 2010. A review of design principles for community-based natural resource management. Ecology and Society 15(4): 38. [online] URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol15/iss4/art38/.Google Scholar

  • Cronkleton, P., J.M. Pulhin, and S. Saigal. 2012. Co-management in community forestry: how the partial devolution of management rights creates challenges for forest communities. Conservation & Society 10(2): 91-102.Google Scholar

  • Daily, G., and P. Matson. 2008. Ecosystem services: from theory to implementation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(28): 9455-9456.Google Scholar

  • Dearden, P., M. Bennett, and J. Johnston. 2005. Trends in global protected area governance, 1992-2002. Environmental Management 36(1): 89-100.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • DeCaro, D. A. and M. K. Stokes 2013. Public participation and institutional fit: a social-psychological perspective. Ecology and Society 18(4): 40. http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-05837-180440.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Dzingirai, V. 2003. ‘CAMPFIRE is not for Ndebele migrants’: the impact of excluding outsiders from CAMPFIRE in the Zambezi Valley, Zimbabwe. Journal of Southern African Studies 29(2): 445-459.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Engel, S., S. Pagiola, and S. Wunder. 2008. Designing payments for environmental services in theory and practice: an overview of the issues. Ecological Economics 65(4): 663-675.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Farley, J., and R. Costanza. 2010. Payments for ecosystem services: from local to global. Ecological Economics 69(11): 2060-2068.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Fisher, J. 2012. No pay, no care? A case study exploring motivations for participation in payments for ecosystem services in Uganda. Oryx 46(1): 45-54.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Folke, C., T. Hahn, P. Olsson, and J. Norberg. 2005. Adaptive governance of social-ecological systems. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 30: 441-473.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Folke, C., L. Pritchard, F. Berkes, J. Colding, and U. Svedin. 2007. The problem of fit between ecosystems and institutions: ten years later. Ecology & Society 12(1): 30.Google Scholar

  • Fraser, N. 2009. Scales of justice; reimagining political space in a globalising world. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar

  • Gibson, C.C., and S.A. Marks. 1995. Transforming rural hunters into conservationists: an assessment of community-wildlife management programmes in Africa. World Development 23(6): 941-957.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gibson, C.C., J.T. Williams, and E. Ostrom. 2005. Local enforcement and better forests. World Development 33(2): 273-284.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Grieg-Gran, M., I. Porras, and S. Wunder. 2005. How can market mechanisms for forest environmental services help the poor? Preliminary lessons from Latin America. World Development 33(9): 1511-1527.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Gutiérrez, N.L., R. Hilborn, and O. Defeo. 2011. Leadership, social capital and incentives promote successful fisheries. Nature 470(7334): 386-389.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hanna, S.S., C. Folke, and K-G. Maler (eds.). 1997. Rights to nature: ecological, economic, cultural and political principles of institutions for the environment. Washington DC: Island Press.Google Scholar

  • Hazzah, L., M. Borgerhoff Mulder, and L. Frank. 2009. Lions and warriors: social factors underlying declining African lion populations and the effect of incentive-based management in Kenya. Biological Conservation 142(11): 2428-2437.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Heikkinen, H.I., O. Moilanen, M. Nuttall, and S. Sarkki. 2011. Managing predators, managing reindeer: contested conceptions of predator policies in the southeast Reindeer herding area of Finland. Polar Record 47(242): 218-230.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hiedanpää, J. 2013. Institutional misfits: law and habits in Finnish wolf policy. Ecology & Society, 18(1): 24.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Holling, C.S., and G.K. Meffe. 1996. Command and Control and the Pathology of Natural Resource Management. Conservation Biology 10(2): 328-337.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Houde, N. 2007. The six faces of traditional ecological knowledge: challenges and opportunities for Canadian co-management arrangements. Ecology & Society 12(2): 34.Google Scholar

  • Hsieh, H-F., and S.E. Shannon. 2005. Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative Health Research 15(9): 1277-1288.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Huang, M., S.K. Upadhyaya, R. Jindal, and J. Kerr. 2009. Payments for watershed services in Asia: a review of current initiatives. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 28(3-5): 551-575.Google Scholar

  • Jack, B., C. Kousky, and K. Sims. 2008. Designing payments for ecosystem services: lessons from previous experience with incentive-based mechanisms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(28): 9465-9470.Google Scholar

  • Jones, S. 2007. Tigers, trees and Tharu: an analysis of community forestry in the buffer zone of the Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Geoforum 38(3): 558-575.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Jones, N., J.R.A. Clark, M. Panteli, M. Proikaki, and P.G. Dimitrakopoulos. 2012. Local social capital and the acceptance of protected area policies: an empirical study of two Ramsar river delta ecosystems in northern Greece. Journal of Environmental Management 96(1): 55-63.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Jumbe, C.B., and A. Angelsen. 2007. Forest dependence and participation in CPR management: empirical evidence from forest co-management in Malawi. Ecological Economics 62(3-4): 661-672.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kellert, S.R., J.N. Mehta, S.A. Ebbin, and L.L. Lichtenfeld. 2000. Community natural resource management: promise, rhetoric, and reality. Society & Natural Resources 13(8): 705-715.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kemkes, R.J., J. Farley, and C.J. Koliba. 2010. Determining when payments are an effective policy approach to ecosystem service provision. Ecological Economics 69(11): 2069-2074.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kerr, J., M. Vardhan, and R. Jindal. 2012. Prosocial behavior and incentives: evidence from field experiments in rural Mexico and Tanzania. Ecological Economics 73: 220-227.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Kumar, S. 2002. Does “participation” in common pool resource management help the poor? A social cost-benefit analysis of joint forest management in Jharkhand, India. World Development 30(5): 763-782.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lachapelle, P.R., P.D. Smith, and S.F. McCool. 2004. Access to power or genuine empowerment? An analysis of three community forest groups in Nepal. Human Ecology Review 11(1): 1-12.Google Scholar

  • Lemaitre, S. 2011. Indigenous peoples’ land rights and REDD: a case study. RECIEL 20(2): 150-162.Google Scholar

  • Lise, W. 2000. Factors influencing people’s participation in forest management in India. Ecological Economics 34(3): 379-392.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Liverman, D. 2004. Who governs, at what scale and at what price? Geography, environmental governance, and the commodification of nature. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 94(4): 734-738.Google Scholar

  • Lund, J.F., and T. Treue. 2008. Are we getting there? Evidence of decentralized forest management from the Tanzanian Miombo woodlands. World Development 36(12): 2780-2800.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • MA. 2003. Millennium ecosystem assessment. Ecosystems and human well-being: a framework for assessment. Washington DC: Island Press.Google Scholar

  • Malla, Y.B., H.R. Neupane, and P.J. Branney. 2003. Why aren’t poor people benefiting more from community forestry. Journal of Forest and Livelihood 3(1): 78-92.Google Scholar

  • Maskey, V., T.G. Gebremedhin, and T.J. Dalton. 2006. Social and cultural determinants of collective management of community forest in Nepal. Journal of Forest Economics 11(4): 261-274.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Matose, F. 2006. Co-management options for reserved forests in Zimbabwe and beyond: policy implications of forest management strategies. Forest Policy & Economics 8(4): 363-374.Google Scholar

  • McAfee, K., and E.N. Shapiro. 2010. Payments for Ecosystem Services in Mexico: nature, neoliberalism, social movements, and the state. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 100(3): 579-599.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • McDermott, M., S. Mahanty, and K. Schreckenberg. 2013. Examining equity: a multidimensional framework for assessing equity in payments for ecosystem services. Environmental Science & Policy 33: 416-427.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Menzies, N. K. 2007. Our forest, your ecosystem, their timber: communities, conservation, and the state in community-based forest management. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar

  • Mohanty, B., and G. Sahu. 2012. An empirical study on elements of forest governance: a study of JFM implementation models in Odisha. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 37: 314-323.Google Scholar

  • Mukul, S.A., A.M. Rashid, S.A. Quazi, M.B. Uddin, and J. Fox. 2012. Local peoples’ responses to co-management regime in protected areas: a case study from Satchari National Park, Bangladesh. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods 21(1): 16-29.Google Scholar

  • Mulrennan, M.E., R. Mark, and C.H. Scott. 2012. Revamping community-based conservation through participatory research. The Canadian Geographer 56(2): 243-259.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Muradian, R., M. Arsel, L. Pellegrini, F. Adaman, B. Aguilar, B. Agarwal, E. Corberra, et al. 2013. Payments for ecosystem services and the fatal attraction of win-win solutions. Conservation Letters 6(4): 274-279.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Musyoki, J.K., J. Mugwe, K. Mutundu, and M. Muchiri. 2013. Determinants of household decision to join community forest associations: a case study of Kenya. ISRN Forestry 2013: 1-10.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Nagendra, H., and E. Ostrom. 2012. Polycentric governance of multifunctional forested landscapes. International Journal of the Commons 6(2): 104-133.Google Scholar

  • Naidu, S.C. 2009. Heterogeneity and collective management: evidence from common forests in Himachal Pradesh, India. World Development 37(3): 676-686.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Neef, A., and D. Thomas. 2009. Rewarding the upland poor for saving the commons? Evidence from Southeast Asia. International Journal of Commons 3(1): 1-15.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Nightingale, A.J. 2002. Participating or just sitting in? The dynamics of gender and caste in community forestry. Journal of Forests and Livelihood 2(1): 17-24.Google Scholar

  • North, D. 1990. Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Olsson, P., C. Folke, V. Galaz, T. Hahn, and L. Schultz. 2007. Enhancing the fit through adaptive co-management: creating and maintaining bridging functions for matching scales in the Kristianstads Vattenrike Biosphere Reserve Sweden. Ecology & Society 12(1): 28.Google Scholar

  • Olsson, P., C. Folke, and T. Hahn. 2004. Social-ecological transformation for ecosystem management: the development of adaptive co-management of a wetland landscape in Southern Sweden. Ecology & Society 9(4): 2.Google Scholar

  • O’Neill, J. 2001. Property, care, and environment. Environment and Planning C 19(5): 695-711.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Ostrom, E. 1990. Governing the commons: the evolution of institutions for collective action. Cambridge New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

  • Ostrom, E. 2010. Polycentric systems for coping with collective action and global environmental change. Global Environmental Change 20(4): 550-557.Google Scholar

  • Ostrom, E. 2009. A general framework for analysing sustainability of social-ecological systems. Science 325: 419.Google Scholar

  • Pagiola, S., A. Arcenas, and G. Platais. 2005. Can payments for environmental services help reduce poverty? An exploration of the issues and the evidence to date from Latin America. World Development 33(2): 237-253.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Pagiola, S., J. Bishop, N. Landell-Mills (eds.). 2002. Selling forest environmental services. market-based mechanisms for conservation and development. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar

  • Pejchar, L., P. Morgan, M. Caldwell, C. Palmer, and G. Daily. 2007. Evaluating the potential for conservation development: biophysical, economic, and institutional perspectives. Conservation Biology 21(1): 69-78.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Peterson, R. B., D. Russell, P. West, and J.P. Brosius. 2010. Seeing (and doing) conservation through cultural lenses. Environmental Management 45(1): 5-18.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Portes, A. 1998. Social capital: its origins and applications in modern sociology. Annual review of sociology 24(1): 1-24.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Pretty, J. 2003. Social capital and the collective management of resources. Science 302(5652): 1912-1914.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Ray, B., and R.N. Bhattacharya. 2011. Transaction costs, collective action and survival of heterogeneous co-management institutions: case study of forest management organisations in West Bengal, India. The Journal of Development Studies 47(2): 253-273.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Reed, M.S., A. Graves, N. Dandy, H. Posthumus, K. Hubacek, J. Morris, C. Prell, et al. 2009. Who’s in and why? A typology of stakeholder analysis methods for natural resource management. Journal of Environmental Management 90(5): 1933-1949.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Reid, H., D. Fig, H. Magome, and N. Leader-Williams. 2004. Co-management of contractual national parks in South Africa: lessons from Australia. Conservation & Society 2(2): 377-409.Google Scholar

  • Reynolds, T.W. 2011. Institutional determinants of success among forestry-based carbon sequestration projects in sub-Saharan Africa. World Development 40(3): 542-544.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Robertson, N., and S. Wunder. 2005. Fresh tracks in the forest: assessing incipient payments for environmental services initiatives in Bolivia. Jakarta, Indonesia: (CIFOR) Center for International Forestry Resources.Google Scholar

  • Rosa, H., D. Barry, S. Kandel, and L. Dimas. 2004. Compensation for environmental services and rural communities: lessons from Americas. Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts Amherst: Working Paper Series 96. http://www.peri.umass.edu/fileadmin/pdf/working_papers/working_papers_51-100/WP96.pdf. Accessed on December 4, 2013.Google Scholar

  • Sarkki, S., H.I. Heikkinen, and T.P. Karjalainen. 2013. Sensitivity in transdisciplinary projects: A case of reindeer management in Finland. Land Use Policy 34: 183-192.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Sillitoe, P., A.A. Alshawi, and A. Hassan. 2010. Challenges to conservation: land use change and local participation in the Al Reem Biosphere Reserve, West Qatar. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 6(1): 28.Google Scholar

  • Singh, V.S., D.N. Pandey, and N.P. Prakash. 2011. What determines the success of joint forest management? Science-based lessons on sustainable governance of forests in India. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 56(1): 126-133.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Sommerville, M., J. Jones, and E. Milner-Gulland. 2009. A revised conceptual framework for payments for environmental services. Ecology & Society 14(2): 34.Google Scholar

  • Soussan, J.G. 2000. Community forestry in Nepal: sustainability and impacts on common and private property resource management. Leeds: University of Leeds, School of Environment Final Technical Report of Natural Resource Systems Programme project R6778.Google Scholar

  • Stoll-Kleemann, S., A.C. De la Vega-Leinert, and L. Schultz. 2010. The role of community participation in the effectiveness of UNESCO Biosphere Reserve management: evidence and reflections from two parallel global surveys. Environmental Conservation 37(3): 227-238.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Tacconi, L. (2012). Redefining payments for environmental services. Ecological Economics, 73(1): 29-36.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Thakadu, O.T. 2005. Success factors in community based natural resources management in northern Botswana: lessons from practice. Natural Resources Forum 29(3): 199-212.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • van Noordwijk, M., B. Leimona, R. Jindal, G.B. Villamor, M. Vardhan, S. Namirembe, D. Catacutan, et al. 2012. Payments for environmental services: evolution toward efficient and fair incentives for multifunctional landscapes. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 37: 389-420.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • West, P., and D. Brockington. 2006. An anthropological perspective on some unexpected consequences of protected areas. Conservation biology 20(3): 609-616.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • West, P., J. Igoe, and D. Brockington. 2006. Parks and peoples: the social impact of protected areas. Annual Review of Anthropology 35: 251-277.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Wilshusen, P., S.R. Brechin, C. Fortwangler, and P.C. West. 2002. Reinventing a square wheel: a critique of a resurgent protection paradigm in international biodiversity conservation. Society & Natural Resources 15(1): 17-40.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Wunder, S. 2006. Payments for environmental services: some nuts and bolts. Bogor, Indonesia: (CIFOR) Center for International Forestry Research Occasional Paper No. 42.Google Scholar

  • Wunder, S. 2007. The Efficiency of Payments for Environmental Services in Tropical Conservation. Conservation Biology 21(1): 48-58.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Wunder, S. 2013. When payments for environmental services will work for conservation. Conservation letters 6(4): 230-237.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Xu, J., L. Chen, Y. Lu, and B. Fu. 2006. Local people’s perceptions as decision support for protected area management in Wolong Biosphere Reserve, China. Journal of Environmental Management 78(4): 362-372.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Young, O.R. 2002. The institutional dimensions of environmental change: fit, interplay and scale. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar

  • Young, O., and A. Underdal. 1997. Institutional dimensions of global change. Bonn, Germany: International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change IHDP Scoping Report. Google Scholar

About the article

Received: 2014-08-18

Accepted: 2015-09-23

Published Online: 2015-12-17

Published in Print: 2015-01-01

Citation Information: Change and Adaptation in Socio-Ecological Systems, Volume 2, Issue 1, ISSN (Online) 2300-3669, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/cass-2015-0007.

Export Citation

© 2015. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Simo Sarkki and Nicolás Acosta García
Conservation Biology, 2019, Volume 33, Number 5, Page 1214
Nathan J. Bennett and Terre Satterfield
Conservation Letters, 2018, Page e12600
S Sarkki, M Jokinen, M Nijnik, L Zahvoyska, EM Abraham, CL Alados, C Bellamy, S Bratanova-Dontcheva, K Grunewald, J Kollar, J Krajčí, AP Kyriazopoulos, N La Porta, AT Monteiro, J Munoz-Rojas, T Parpan, L Sing, M Smith, ML Sutinen, A Tolvanen, and T Zhyla
Climate Research, 2017, Volume 73, Number 1-2, Page 31

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in