Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
In This Section

Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM)

Published in Association with the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM)

Editor-in-Chief: Plebani, Mario

Ed. by Gillery, Philippe / Lackner, Karl J. / Lippi, Giuseppe / Melichar, Bohuslav / Payne, Deborah A. / Schlattmann, Peter / Tate, Jillian R.

12 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 3.432

CiteScore 2016: 2.21

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.873
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 0.982

See all formats and pricing
In This Section
Volume 37, Issue 11-12 (Nov 1999)


Magnesium in Disease: a Review with Special Emphasis on the Serum Ionized Magnesium

Gerard T. Sanders / Henk J. Huijgen / Renata Sanders
Published Online: 2005-06-01 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/CCLM.1999.151


This review deals with the six main clinical situations related to magnesium or one of its fractions, including ionized magnesium: renal disease, hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes mellitus, cardiac disease, and the administration of therapeutic drugs. Issues addressed are the physiological role of magnesium, eventual changes in its levels, and how these best can be monitored.

In renal disease mostly moderate hypermagnesemia is seen; measuring ionized magnesium offers minimal advantage. In hypertension magnesium might be lowered but its measurement does not seem relevant. In the prediction of severe pre-eclampsia, elevated ionized magnesium concentration may play a role, but no unequivocal picture emerges. Low magnesium in blood may be cause for, or consequence of, diabetes mellitus. No special fraction clearly indicates magnesium deficiency leading to insulin resistance. Cardiac diseases are related to diminished magnesium levels. During myocardial infarction, serum magnesium drops. Total magnesium concentration in cardiac cells can be predicted from levels in sublingual or skeletal muscle cells. Most therapeutic drugs (diuretics, chemotherapeutics, immunosuppressive agents, antibiotics) cause hypomagnesemia due to increased urinary loss.

It is concluded that most of the clinical situations studied show hypomagnesemia due to renal loss, with exception of renal disease. Keeping in mind that only 1% of the total body magnesium pool is extracellular, no simple measurement of the real intracellular situation has emerged; measuring ionized magnesium in serum has little added value at present.

About the article

Published Online: 2005-06-01

Published in Print: 1999-11-18

Citation Information: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, ISSN (Print) 1434-6621, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/CCLM.1999.151.

Export Citation

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

W. Cheungpasitporn, C. Thongprayoon, M. A. Mao, N. Srivali, P. Ungprasert, N. Varothai, A. Sanguankeo, W. Kittanamongkolchai, and S. B. Erickson
Internal Medicine Journal, 2015, Volume 45, Number 4, Page 436
Salma M. S. El Said and Walaa W. Aly
Advances in Aging Research, 2014, Volume 03, Number 01, Page 12
Martin Skov, Frank Vincenzo De Paoli, Jesper Lausten, Ole Baekgaard Nielsen, and Thomas Holm Pedersen
Muscle & Nerve, 2015, Volume 51, Number 1, Page 65
Bao-Li Zhu, Takaki Ishikawa, Li Quan, Dong-Ri Li, Dong Zhao, Tomomi Michiue, and Hitoshi Maeda
Forensic Science International, 2005, Volume 155, Number 1, Page 18
S. Rob Todd, Joseph F. Sucher, Laura J. Moore, Krista L. Turner, Jeff B. Hall, and Frederick A. Moore
The American Journal of Surgery, 2009, Volume 198, Number 6, Page 911
Dong-Ri Li, Li Quan, Bao-Li Zhu, Takaki Ishikawa, Tomomi Michiue, Dong Zhao, Chiemi Yoshida, Jian-Hua Chen, Qi Wang, Ayumi Komatsu, Yoko Azuma, and Hitoshi Maeda
Legal Medicine, 2009, Volume 11, Page S276
David E. Kopsell, Dean A. Kopsell, Mark G. Lefsrud, and Joanne Curran-Celentano
Journal of Plant Nutrition, 2005, Volume 27, Number 10, Page 1813
D. Weiss, D. Burger, M.A. Weishaupt, A. Fakler, U.E. Spichiger, L. Giese, A. Liesegang, M. Wanner, and J.-L. Riond
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 2002, Volume 22, Number 2, Page 77
Hosam M. Soliman, Dany Mercan, Suzana S. M. Lobo, Christian Mélot, and Jean-Louis Vincent
Critical Care Medicine, 2003, Volume 31, Number 4, Page 1082
Pascal Laurant and Rhian M. Touyz
Journal of Hypertension, 2000, Volume 18, Number 9, Page 1177
Karl S. Roth and James C. M. Chan
Current Opinion in Endocrinology & Diabetes, 2001, Volume 8, Number 1, Page 2
Susanne Herroeder, Marianne E. Schönherr, Stefan G. De Hert, and Markus W. Hollmann
Anesthesiology, 2011, Volume 114, Number 4, Page 971
Suzanne C. Fincham, Kenneth J. Drobatz, Tracey N. Gillespie, and Rebecka S. Hess
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 2004, Volume 18, Number 5, Page 612
Seema Jain, Priyamvada Sharma, Shobha Kulshreshtha, Govind Mohan, and Saroj Singh
Biological Trace Element Research, 2010, Volume 133, Number 2, Page 162
Cheung Soo Shin, Chul Ho Chang, and Jeong-Ho Kim
Yonsei Medical Journal, 2006, Volume 47, Number 2, Page 191
Laurent Dubé and Jean-Claude Granry
Canadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal canadien d'anesthésie, 2003, Volume 50, Number 7, Page 732
P. Saur, P. D. Niedmann, E. Brunner, and D. Kettler
European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 2005, Volume 22, Number 2, Page 148
Jacob Atsmon and Eran Dolev
Drug Safety, 2005, Volume 28, Number 9, Page 763
Gifford Lum
Laboratory Medicine, 2004, Volume 35, Number 2, Page 106
Salim Haddad, Susan F. Leitman, Robert A. Wesley, Stacey Cecco, Yu Ying Yau, Judith Starling, Nadja N. Rehak, and Charles D. Bolan
Transfusion, 2005, Volume 45, Number 6, Page 934

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in