Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM)
Published in Association with the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM)
Editor-in-Chief: Plebani, Mario
Ed. by Gillery, Philippe / Lackner, Karl J. / Lippi, Giuseppe / Melichar, Bohuslav / Payne, Deborah A. / Schlattmann, Peter / Tate, Jillian R.
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Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein: Atherogenic and Proinflammatory Characteristics during Macrophage Foam Cell Formation. An Inhibitory Role for Nutritional Antioxidants and Serum Paraoxonase
Oxidative stress and inflammatory processes are of major importance in atherogenesis because they stimulate oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL)-induced macrophage cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation, the hallmark of early atherosclerosis. Under oxidative stress, both blood monocytes and plasma lipoproteins invade the arterial wall, where they are exposed to atherogenic modifications. Oxidative stress stimulates endothelial secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and of macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), leading to monocyte adhesion and differentiation, respectively. LDL binds to extracellular matrix (ECM secreted by endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and macrophages) proteoglycans, in a process that contributes to the enhanced susceptibility of the lipoprotein to oxidation by arterial wall macrophages. ECM-retained Ox-LDL is taken up by activated macrophages via their scavenger receptors. This leads to cellular cholesterol accumulation and enhanced atherogenesis. Protection of LDL against oxidation by antioxidants that can act directly on the LDL, or indirectly on the cellular oxidative machinery, or conversion of Ox-LDL to a non-atherogenic particle by HDL-associated paraoxonase (PON-1), can contribute to attenuation of atherosclerosis.
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