Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM)

Published in Association with the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM)

Editor-in-Chief: Plebani, Mario

Ed. by Gillery, Philippe / Greaves, Ronda / Lackner, Karl J. / Lippi, Giuseppe / Melichar, Bohuslav / Payne, Deborah A. / Schlattmann, Peter

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 3.638

CiteScore 2018: 2.44

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 1.191
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.205

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 38, Issue 2


Standardization and Quality Control of PCR Analyses

Hans-Joachim Burkardt
Published Online: 2005-06-01 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/CCLM.2000.014


In the very beginning of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests entering the field of diagnosis of infectious agents, the introduction of this technology into routine diagnosis was hampered by its frequent tendency to create false-positive results because of contamination. This problem is now widely solved by the introduction of the uracil-N-glycosylase (UNG) anticontamination technology. However, care must still be taken to avoid other sources of producing false positive results. They might additionally derive from human error and/or insufficient PCR amplification and detection protocols. A special case lies in the fact that PCR also amplifies DNA from dead organisms rendering a result diagnostically correct as positive, but clinically as false-positive. In PCR, as in any other diagnostic test, the risk of creating a false-negative result also exists. In such a case, the most probable source besides human error, low target or poor amplification and detection protocols is an inhibition caused by interfering substances in a patient's sample. Strategies to recognize and overcome this issue are discussed in this article. Finally a few results from quality control studies on amplification technologies in the diagnosis of infectious agents are reviewed.

About the article

Published Online: 2005-06-01

Published in Print: 2000-02-05

Citation Information: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Volume 38, Issue 2, Pages 87–91, ISSN (Print) 1434-6621, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/CCLM.2000.014.

Export Citation

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Ewa Kwit, Zbigniew Osiński, and Artur Rzeżutka
Journal of Virological Methods, 2019, Volume 272, Page 113709
Ruijing Su, Hui Dong, Tongyi Li, Yibao Jiang, Ziguo Yuan, Chunlei Su, Longxian Zhang, and Yurong Yang
International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, 2019, Volume 8, Page 234
Nagadenahalli B. Siddappa, Appukuttan Avinash, Mohanram Venkatramanan, and Udaykumar Ranga
BioTechniques, 2007, Volume 42, Number 2, Page 186
Hirokazu Takahashi, Kimiko Yamamoto, Toshio Ohtani, and Shigeru Sugiyama
BioTechniques, 2009, Volume 47, Number 1, Page 609
Paolo Verderio, Anita Mangia, Claudio Orlando, Maurizio Belfiglio, Antonio Marchetti, Lucio Bertario, Gennaro Chiappetta, Massimo Gion, Gian Paolo Tonini, Franca Podo, Amina Vocaturo, Rosella Silvestrini, Claudio Lombardo, and Angelo Paradiso
Tumori Journal, 2010, Volume 96, Number 5, Page 721
Reza Faraji, Mostafa Behjati-Ardakani, Seyed Mohammad Moshtaghioun, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Seyedeh Mahdieh Namayandeh, Mohammadhossien Soltani, Mahmood Emami, Hengameh Zandi, Ali Dehghani Firoozabadi, Mahmood Kazeminasab, Nastaran Ahmadi, and Mohammadtaghi Sarebanhassanabadi
The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, 2017
Carlton A. Evans, Leen Rigouts, Jorge Arévalo, Francesca Barletta, Koen Vandelannoote, and Jimena Collantes
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2014, Volume 91, Number 4, Page 709
Márcia Alves Vasconcelos Rodrigues, Álvaro Bisol Serafini, Marieta de Souza Pereira, Thathiane Dias da Silva, Marcelo Fouad Rabahi, Suely Lemes de Alves, and André Kipnis
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 2004, Volume 99, Number 4, Page 415
Karina Hatamoto Kawasato, Léa Campos de Oliveira, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira Velho, Lidia Yamamoto, Gilda Maria Barbaro Del Negro, and Thelma Suely Okay
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, 2013, Volume 55, Number 1, Page 1
Hirokazu Takahashi, Hiroyuki Yamazaki, Satoshi Akanuma, Hiroko Kanahara, Toshiyuki Saito, Tomoyuki Chimuro, Takayoshi Kobayashi, Toshio Ohtani, Kimiko Yamamoto, Shigeru Sugiyama, Toshiro Kobori, and Luis Menéndez-Arias
PLoS ONE, 2014, Volume 9, Number 2, Page e82624
Bobbi M. Johnson and Brian M. Kemp
Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 2017, Volume 11, Page 683
H. Y. Cai, J. L. Caswell, and J. F. Prescott
Veterinary Pathology, 2014, Volume 51, Number 2, Page 341
Timothy D. Dale, Phillip C. Watts, David Jones, Kieran Pounder, David J. Everest, Michael E. Begon, and Julian Chantrey
European Journal of Wildlife Research, 2016, Volume 62, Number 5, Page 589
Hirokazu Takahashi, Takahiro Satoh, Hiroko Kanahara, Yuji Kubota, Tamaki Hirose, Hiroyuki Yamazaki, Kimiko Yamamoto, Yoshiko Okamura, Taketo Suzuki, and Toshiro Kobori
BioTechniques, 2016, Volume 61, Number 1
Verena K. Affolter
Veterinary Dermatology, 2017, Volume 28, Number 1, Page 134
Camilla Rodrigues, Niyati Desai, and Helen Fernandes
Clinical Microbiology Newsletter, 2016, Volume 38, Number 7, Page 51
R. Santhanam and K. Lakshmi
Asian Spine Journal, 2015, Volume 9, Number 4, Page 559
Lindsey Verduin, Justin Bishop, and Stacey E. Mills
Annals of Diagnostic Pathology, 2015, Volume 19, Number 5, Page 306
Eung Seo Koo, Chang-Hoon Yoo, Youjin Na, Soo Young Park, Hey Rhyoung Lyoo, and Yong Seok Jeong
Journal of Microbiology, 2012, Volume 50, Number 5, Page 726
Hengameh Khosropanah, Maryam Karandish, Mazyar Ziaeyan, and Marzieh Jamalidoust
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, 2015, Volume 8, Number 5
Asiye Akbarian, Mohammad Hassan Shahhosseiny, Somayeh Vafaei, Elham Moslemi, and Maryam Ghahri
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, 2015, Volume 8, Number 2
Ribrio I. T. P. Batista, Maria C. S. Luciano, Dárcio I. A. Teixeira, Vicente J. F. Freitas, Luciana M. Melo, Lyudmila E. Andreeva, Irina A. Serova, and Oleg L. Serov
Biotechnology Progress, 2014, Volume 30, Number 6, Page 1390
A. Alanio and S. Bretagne
Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 2014, Volume 20, Page 36
C. Schrader, A. Schielke, L. Ellerbroek, and R. Johne
Journal of Applied Microbiology, 2012, Volume 113, Number 5, Page 1014
Lijuan Zhang, Daxin Ni, and Zijian Feng
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 2010, Volume 3, Number 11, Page 851
Yu-Li Liu, Chih-Min Liu, Hwei-Fang Tien, and Hai-Gwo Hwu
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, 2009, Volume 108, Number 7, Page 587
Valerie A. Brown and Pamela A. Wilkins
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice, 2006, Volume 22, Number 2, Page 633
K. Frydendahl, H. Imberechts, and S. Lehmann
Molecular and Cellular Probes, 2001, Volume 15, Number 3, Page 151
Capucine Letertre, Sylvie Perelle, Françoise Dilasser, and Patrick Fach
Molecular and Cellular Probes, 2003, Volume 17, Number 5, Page 227
Capucine Letertre, Sylvie Perelle, Françoise Dilasser, Khalil Arar, and Patrick Fach
Molecular and Cellular Probes, 2003, Volume 17, Number 6, Page 307
Else-Marie Bladbjerg, Jørgen Gram, Jørgen Jespersen, and Moniek P.M de Maat
Vascular Pharmacology, 2002, Volume 39, Number 3, Page 127
Kjartan Hodneland and Curt Endresen
Journal of Virological Methods, 2006, Volume 131, Number 2, Page 184
Franz J. Conraths and Gereon Schares
Veterinary Parasitology, 2006, Volume 136, Number 2, Page 91
A. Bertolotto, A. Sala, M. Caldano, M. Capobianco, S. Malucchi, F. Marnetto, and F. Gilli
Journal of Immunological Methods, 2007, Volume 321, Number 1-2, Page 19
Hirokazu Takahashi, Atsuko Matsumoto, Shigeru Sugiyama, and Toshiro Kobori
Analytical Biochemistry, 2010, Volume 401, Number 2, Page 242
Claude Mambo Muvunyi, Nathalie Dhont, Rita Verhelst, Tania Crucitti, Martin Reijans, Brit Mulders, Guus Simons, Marleen Temmerman, Geert Claeys, and Elizaveta Padalko
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 2011, Volume 71, Number 1, Page 29
J Premanandh, L.V George, U Wernery, and J Sasse
Veterinary Microbiology, 2003, Volume 95, Number 4, Page 229
David M. Whiley, John W. Tapsall, and Theo P. Sloots
The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, 2006, Volume 8, Number 1, Page 3
Shu-Ling Liang, Ming-Tseh Lin, Michael J. Hafez, Christopher D. Gocke, Kathleen M. Murphy, Lori J. Sokoll, and James R. Eshleman
The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, 2008, Volume 10, Number 2, Page 142
Mily Leblanc-Maridor, François Beaudeau, Henri Seegers, Martine Denis, and Catherine Belloc
BMC Microbiology, 2011, Volume 11, Number 1, Page 113
Alan R. Thornhill and Karen Snow
The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics, 2002, Volume 4, Number 1, Page 11
François J Picard and Michel G Bergeron
Drug Discovery Today, 2002, Volume 7, Number 21, Page 1092
Ai-Lian Hei and Jian-Ping Cai
DNA and Cell Biology, 2005, Volume 24, Number 8, Page 479
Simon C. Ramsden, Zandra Deans, David O. Robinson, Roger Mountford, Erik A. Sistermans, Wayne W. Grody, Shirley McQuaid, Simon J. Patton, and Susan A.R. Stenhouse
Genetic Testing, 2006, Volume 10, Number 3, Page 147
Toyoichiro Kudo, Hiroto Egawa, Kiyotaka Kuzushima, Hiroshi Kimura, Tsuneo Morishima, and Satoshi Ichiyama
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 2001, Volume 39, Number 9
Verônica V. Horewicz, Magda Feres, Gisela E. Rapp, Vania Yasuda, and Patricia R. Cury
Journal of Periodontology, 2010, Volume 81, Number 4, Page 562
Stéphane Bretagne
Current Infectious Disease Reports, 2010, Volume 12, Number 6, Page 430
Tania Crucitti, Vicky Jespers, Chanda Mulenga, Shepherd Khondowe, Judith Vandepitte, and Anne Buvé
Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 2009, Page 1
Derliane Oliveira, Sook Fan Yap, Siripan Wongwanich, Baldip Khan, and Juan Cristina
Accreditation and Quality Assurance, 2010, Volume 15, Number 2, Page 89
H. Westh, G. Lisby, F. Breysse, B. Böddinghaus, M. Chomarat, V. Gant, A. Goglio, A. Raglio, H. Schuster, F. Stuber, H. Wissing, and A. Hoeft
Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 2009, Volume 15, Number 6, Page 544
Eszter Szöllősi, Olof Hellgren, and Dennis Hasselquist
Journal of Parasitology, 2008, Volume 94, Number 2, Page 562
Hidekazu NIWA, Toru ANZAI, and Seiji HOBO
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 2007, Volume 69, Number 11, Page 1199
Jacqueline Gindler, Sarah Tinker, Lauri Markowitz, William Atkinson, Loring Dales, and Mark J. Papania
The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2004, Volume 189, Number s1, Page S69
S. C. Ramsden, K. Mann, C. McConnell, and R. Hastings
Prenatal Diagnosis, 2007, Volume 27, Number 5, Page 404
S. Persson, K.E.P. Olsen, F. Scheutz, K.A. Krogfelt, and P. Gerner-Smidt
Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 2007, Volume 13, Number 5, Page 516
Marianne Olsen, Hans O. Madsen, Henrik Hjalgrim, Jannie Gregers, Klaus Rostgaard, and Kjeld Schmiegelow
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, 2006, Volume 28, Number 11, Page 734
D. V. Rebrikov and D. Yu. Trofimov
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, 2006, Volume 42, Number 5, Page 455
Natalie D. Halbert, Ruth A. Reitzel, Ronald J. Martens, and Noah D. Cohen
American Journal of Veterinary Research, 2005, Volume 66, Number 8, Page 1380
Francesca Gilli, Fabiana Marnetto, Guglielmo Stefanuto, Valentina Rinaldi, Federica Farinazzo, Simona Malucchi, Marco Capobianco, Marzia Caldano, Arianna Sala, and Antonio Bertolotto
Molecular Diagnosis, 2004, Volume 8, Number 3, Page 185
I Cappuyns, P Gugerli, and A Mombelli
Oral Diseases, 2005, Volume 11, Number 4, Page 219
S. Pischke, D. W. Buttner, E. Liebau, and P. Fischer
Tropical Medicine and International Health, 2002, Volume 7, Number 6, Page 526
T. Crucitti, S. Abdellati, D.A. Ross, J. Changalucha, E. Dyck, and A. Buve
Letters in Applied Microbiology, 2004, Volume 38, Number 6, Page 510
F. G. A. Moore and C. Wolfson
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 2002, Volume 106, Number 2, Page 63
Fr�d�ric Lecouvet, Leonid Irenge, Bernard Vandercam, Adrien Nzeusseu, Sandrine Hamels, and Jean-Luc Gala
Arthritis & Rheumatism, 2004, Volume 50, Number 9, Page 2985
Ioannis Panagopoulos, Fredrik Mertens, Henryk A. Domanski, Margareth Isaksson, Otte Brosj�, Pelle Gustafson, and Nils Mandahl
International Journal of Cancer, 2001, Volume 93, Number 6, Page 769

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in