Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM)
Published in Association with the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM)
Editor-in-Chief: Plebani, Mario
Ed. by Gillery, Philippe / Greaves, Ronda / Lackner, Karl J. / Lippi, Giuseppe / Melichar, Bohuslav / Payne, Deborah A. / Schlattmann, Peter
IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 3.638
CiteScore 2018: 2.44
SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 1.191
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.205
An insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been described in chromosome 17q23 of the human genome. Subjects with the genotype DD have markedly higher plasma ACE levels than those with genotype II; although ACE concentration in plasma is not rate-limiting for the production of angiotensin II, it has been suggested that the renin-angiotensin system may have an enhanced role in cardiovascular homeostasis in subjects with DD genotype or D allele. Metaanalysis confirmed the association of the D allele with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke, but these relations are still uncertain with longevity and renal deterioration. Otherwise, I allele seems to be related with an improved response to physical training. The I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene is not a marker for any form of hypertension, though some conflicting results have been described. Nevertheless this polymorphism may have an influence on the antihypertensive response, particularly when using ACE inhibitors (ACEI). For example, blood pressure normalization with captopril in patients suffering from cardiac failure would be more effective in II genotype; conversely, both regression in left ventricular hypertrophy and improvement in diastolic filling would be greater after long-term treatment with enalapril in patients with essential hypertension and DD genotype. Conflicting results were also described using ACEI as a renoprotective therapy. This review therefore supports the justification for further evaluation in appropriately powered studies.
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