Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details

Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM)

Published in Association with the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM)

Editor-in-Chief: Plebani, Mario

Ed. by Gillery, Philippe / Lackner, Karl J. / Lippi, Giuseppe / Melichar, Bohuslav / Payne, Deborah A. / Schlattmann, Peter / Tate, Jillian R.

12 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR increased in 2015: 3.017
Rank 5 out of 30 in category Medical Laboratory Technology in the 2014 Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Report/Science Edition

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.873
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 0.982
Impact per Publication (IPP) 2015: 2.238

See all formats and pricing
Volume 39, Issue 8 (Aug 2001)


Homocysteine in Postmenopausal Women and the Importance of Hormone Replacement Therapy

Velja Mijatovic / Marius J. van der Mooren
Published Online: 2005-06-01 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/CCLM.2001.127


Homocysteine (Hcy) has been shown to damage the vascular endothelial cells, contributing to atherothrombosis. The increase in plasma Hcy levels with natural menopause suggests a close relationship between Hcy metabolism and estrogen status and proposes one of the mechanisms through which menopause unfavorably affects cardiovascular disease risk in women. In addition to the prevention of osteoporosis, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) lowers Hcy levels in postmenopausal women. The first report by van der Mooren et al., demonstrated in an uncontrolled study a significant reduction (11%) in fasting serum Hcy level after 6 months of treatment with sequentially combined estradiol-dydrogesterone therapy in 21 healthy postmenopausal women. This effect was particularly evident in women with initially elevated baseline serum Hcy concentrations. Similar results were found in other studies in which women were treated with various transdermal as well as oral HRT regimens, although two studies could not confirm these findings. All these studies were uncontrolled, and three of them consisted of a relatively small number of participants. Therefore, they remained inconclusive. Three randomized controlled trials on HRT and Hcy were published to date, confirming that postmenopausal HRT reduces circulating levels of Hcy. Current and recent HRT use is associated with a slight increased risk of breast cancer. As a result of this, research has centered on finding compounds that can prevent the consequences of estrogen deficiency, without the potential risk of HRT. Raloxifene, referred to as a Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM), has the potential as a viable alternative to HRT. Recently, two randomized controlled trials demonstrated that raloxifene lowers plasma Hcy levels in postmenopausal women, similar to the reduction obtained with HRT. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying the HRT-associated lowering of plasma Hcy. Proposed mechanisms relate to an increase in kidney methionine synthase activity or may be related to the transamination of methionine. We conclude that HRT decreases plasma Hcy levels in postmenopausal women and that the strongest reductions can be achieved in women with the highest concentrations.

About the article

Published Online: 2005-06-01

Published in Print: 2001-08-31

Citation Information: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, ISSN (Print) 1434-6621, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/CCLM.2001.127. Export Citation

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Young Joo Lee, Ji Yun Hong, Seung Chul Kim, Jong Kil Joo, Yong Jin Na, and Kyu Sup Lee
Obstetrics & Gynecology Science, 2015, Volume 58, Number 1, Page 46
Cahide Gökkuşu, Zeynep Özbek, and Gülten Tata
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2012, Volume 285, Number 3, Page 733
Dusko Mirkovic, Nada Majkic-Singh, and Svetlana Ignjatovic
Jugoslovenska medicinska biohemija, 2003, Volume 22, Number 2, Page 127
Hanna Bukowska, Stanisław Stanosz, Ewa Żochowska, Barbara Millo, Krzysztof Sieja, Kornel Chełstowski, and Marek Naruszewicz
Metabolism, 2005, Volume 54, Number 1, Page 72
Tatjana E. Vogelvang, Velja Mijatovic, Peter Kenemans, Tom Teerlink, and Marius J. van der Mooren
Fertility and Sterility, 2004, Volume 82, Number 6, Page 1540
Marie Bičíková, Jaroslava Tallová, Soňa Stanická, Martin Hill, Karel Vondra, and Richard Hampl
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 2002, Volume 40, Number 10
Tatjana El??ne Vogelvang, Marius Jan van der Mooren, Velja Mijatovic, and Peter Kenemans
Drugs, 2006, Volume 66, Number 2, Page 191
Tatjana E Vogelvang, Marius J van der Mooren, and Velja Mijatovic
Treatments in Endocrinology, 2004, Volume 3, Number 2, Page 105
J. Tallova, M. Bicikova, M. Hill, J. Tomandl, and D. Valentova
European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2003, Volume 33, Number 3, Page 268

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in