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Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM)

Published in Association with the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM)

Editor-in-Chief: Plebani, Mario

Ed. by Gillery, Philippe / Greaves, Ronda / Lackner, Karl J. / Lippi, Giuseppe / Melichar, Bohuslav / Payne, Deborah A. / Schlattmann, Peter

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 3.638

CiteScore 2018: 2.44

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 1.191
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.205

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Volume 42, Issue 1


Matrix effects in clinical immunoassays and the effect of preheating and cooling analytical samples

Hiroshi Yoshida / Yuji Imafuku / Toshihiko Nagai
Published Online: 2005-06-01 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/CCLM.2004.010


Immunological reactions are influenced by various factors including antigens, antibodies and other variables. We focused on two items: i) matrix effects, especially of detergents and ii) temperature effects: preheating sera, especially effects on rheumatoid factor (RF) measurement and false-positive reactions in ELISAs, and cold storage of sera, especially effects on complement. Among various additives, detergents affected the agglutination reaction for fecal hemoglobin and hepatitis B surface (HBs) antigen. Some of the detergents examined abolished these antigenicities, however, polyethylenglycols enhanced the reactions. Heat-inactivation of sera at 56°C for 30 min was employed in serological testing. However, in RF measurement, 10 min of preheating was sufficient to abolish C1q (subcomponent of C1), which could participate in the agglutination reaction. In ELISA for antibodies, false-positive reactions were caused by preheating sera. By the analyses of assays for antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and cardiolipin, it was found that they were induced by immunoglobulin G (IgG) modified by preheating. Cold storage induced activation of complement (cold activation) in anti-HCV antibody positive sera. CH50 titers in the sera were lowered by one cycle of freezing at −20°C and thawing, and the decrease was affected by the containers.

About the article

Published Online: 2005-06-01

Published in Print: 2004-02-16

Citation Information: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM), Volume 42, Issue 1, Pages 51–56, ISSN (Online) 1437-4331, ISSN (Print) 1434-6621, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/CCLM.2004.010.

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