Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
In This Section

Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM)

Published in Association with the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM)

Editor-in-Chief: Plebani, Mario

Ed. by Gillery, Philippe / Lackner, Karl J. / Lippi, Giuseppe / Melichar, Bohuslav / Payne, Deborah A. / Schlattmann, Peter / Tate, Jillian R.

12 Issues per year


IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 3.432

CiteScore 2016: 2.21

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.873
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 0.982

Online
ISSN
1437-4331
See all formats and pricing
In This Section
Volume 42, Issue 12 (Dec 2004)

Issues

The apoB/apoA-I ratio is better than the cholesterol ratios to estimate the balance between plasma proatherogenic and antiatherogenic lipoproteins and to predict coronary risk

Göran Walldius
  • King Gustaf V Research Institute, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden and AstraZeneca, Molndal, Sweden
/ Ingmar Jungner
  • CALAB Research, Stockholm and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
/ Are H. Aastveit
  • Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Agricultural University of Norway, As, Norway
/ Ingar Holme
  • Preventive Medicine Clinic, Ulleval University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
/ Curt D. Furberg
  • Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, United States of America
/ Allan D. Sniderman
  • Mike Rosenblom Laboratory for Cardiovascular Research, McGill University Health Center, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
Published Online: 2005-06-01 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/CCLM.2004.254

Abstract

Background: The apolipoprotein B (apoB)/apoA-I ratio represents the balance of proatherogenic and antiatherogenic lipoproteins. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the apoB/apoA-I ratio was superior to any of the cholesterol ratios – total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/HDL-C and non-HDL-C/HDL-C – in predicting the risk of coronary disease. Moreover, we examined whether any lipids, lipoproteins or cholesterol ratios add significant predictive information beyond that provided by the apoB/apoA-I ratio.

Methods: Plasma lipids, lipoproteins, apoB, and apoA-I were measured in 69,030 men and 57,168 women above 40years of age. After a mean follow-up of 98months, 1183 men and 560 women had died from a myocardial infarction in this prospective apolipoprotein-related mortality risk (AMORIS) study.

Results: High apoB and a high apoB/apoA-I ratio were strongly related to increased coronary risk, while high apoA-I was inversely related to risk. The apoB/apoA-I ratio was superior to any of the cholesterol ratios in predicting risk. This advantage was most pronounced in subjects with LDL-C levels <3.6mmol/l. Addition of lipids, lipoproteins or any cholesterol ratio to apoB/apoA-I in risk models did not further improve the strong predictive value of apoB/apoA-I.

Conclusions: These results indicate that the apoB/apoA-I ratio is at present the best single lipoprotein-related variable to quantitate coronary risk. Given the additional advantages apolipoproteins possess – fasting samples are not required, apoB/apoA-I is a better index of the adequacy of statin therapy than LDL-C, and the measurement of apoB and apoA-I are standardized, whereas LDL-C and HDL-C are not – there would appear to be considerable advantage to integrating apolipoproteins into clinical practice.

Keywords: apolipoprotein A-I; apolipoprotein B; fatal myocardial infarction; guidelines; lipoproteins

References

  • 1

    Adult Treatment Panel III. Third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Final Report. Circulation 2002;106:3144–421.

  • 2

    Grundy SM. Low-density lipoprotein, non-high-density lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein B as targets of lipid-lowering therapy [editorial]. Circulation 2002;106:2526–9. [Crossref]

  • 3

    De Backer G, Ambrosini E, Borch-Johansen K, Brotons C, Cifkova R, Dallongeville J, et al. European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. Third Joint Task Force of European and other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice. Eur Heart J 2003; 24:1601–10. [Crossref]

  • 4

    Conroy RM, Pyörälä K, Fitzgerald AP, Sans S, Menotti A, De Backer G, et al. Estimation of ten-year risk factor cardiovascular disease in Europe: the SCORE project. Eur Heart J 2003; 24:987–1003. [Crossref]

  • 5

    International Atherosclerosis Society. Harmonized Clinical Guidelines on Prevention of Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease. Executive Summary, 2003:1–23 (info@athero.org).

  • 6

    Genest J, Frohlich J, Fodor G, McPherson R. Recommendations for the management and treatment of dyslipidemia and the prevention of cardiovascular disease: summary of the 2003 update. Can Med Assoc J 2003; 169:921–4.

  • 7

    Swedish–Norwegian guidelines: behandling med lipidsänkande läkemedel vid prevention av hjärt-kärlsjukdom. Uppsala: Läkemedelsverket, 2003 (http://www.mpa.se, Information 2003 14/4).

  • 8

    Lamarche B, Moorjani S, Lupien PJ, Cantin B, Bernard P-M, Dagenais GR, et al. Apolipoprotein A-1 and B levels and the risk of ischemic heart disease during a five-year follow-up of men in the Québec Cardiovascular Study. Circulation 1996; 94:273–8. [Crossref]

  • 9

    Moss AJ, Goldstein RE, Marder VJ, Sparks CE, Oakes D, Greenberg H, Weiss HJ, et al. Thrombogenic factors and recurrent coronary events. Circulation 1999; 99:2517–22. [Crossref]

  • 10

    Walldius G, Jungner I, Holme I, Aastveit AH, Kolar W, Steiner E. High apolipoprotein B, low apolipoprotein A-I, and improvement in the prediction of fatal myocardial infarction (AMORIS study): a prospective study. Lancet 2001; 358:2026–33.

  • 11

    Talmud PJ, Hawe E, Miller GJ, Humphries SE. Non-fasting apoB and triglyceride levels as a useful predictor of coronary heart disease risk in middle-aged UK men. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2002; 22:1918–23. [Crossref]

  • 12

    Graziani MS, Zanolla L, Righetti G, Marchetti C, Mocarelli P, Marcovina S. Plasma apolipoprotein A-I and B in survivors of myocardial infarction and in a control group. Clin Chem 1998; 44:134–40.

  • 13

    Francis MC, Frohlich JJ. Coronary artery disease in patients at low risk – apolipoprotein A-I as an independent risk factor. Atherosclerosis 2001; 155:165–7.

  • 14

    Luc G, Bard J-M, Ferrières J, Evans A, Amouyel P, Arveiler D, et al. Value of HDL-C, apolipoprotein A-I, lipoprotein A-I, and lipoprotein A-I/A-II in prediction of coronary artery disease. The PRIME Study. Prospective epidemiological study of myocardial infarction. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2002; 22:1155–61. [Crossref]

  • 15

    Sniderman AD, Furberg CD, Keech A, Roeters van Lennep JE, Frohlich J, Jungner I, et al. Apolipoproteinsversus lipids as indices of coronary risk and as targets for statin therapy: analysis of the evidence. Lancet 2003; 361:777–80.

  • 16

    Marcovina SM, Albers JJ, Kennedy H, Mei JV, Henderson LO, Hannon WH. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry standardization project for measurements of apolipoproteins A-I and B. IV. Comparability of apolipoprotein B values by use of international reference material. Clin Chem 1994; 40:586–92.

  • 17

    Otvos JD, Jeyarajah EJ, Cromvell WC. Measurement issues related to lipoprotein heterogeneity. Am J Cardiol 2002; 90:Suppl:22i–29i. [Crossref]

  • 18

    Otvos J. LDL particles, but not LDL cholesterol, are highly elevated in the metabolic syndrome: results from the Framingham Offspring Study. AHA 2003 Scientific Sessions Online, Orlando, FL, 2003.

  • 19

    Sniderman AD, Scantlebury T, Cianflone K. Hypertriglyceridemic hyperapoB: the unappreciated atherogenic dyslipoproteinemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med 2001; 135:447–59. [Crossref]

  • 20

    Berneis KK, Krauss RM. Metabolic origins and clinical significance of LDL heterogeneity. J Lipid Res 2002; 43:1363–79. [Crossref]

  • 21

    Marcovina SM, Albers JJ, Henderson LO, Hannon WH. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry standardization project for measurements of apolipoproteins A-I and B. III. Comparability of apolipoprotein A-I values by use of international reference material. Clin Chem 1993; 39:773–81.

  • 22

    Bachorik PS, Lovejoy KI, Carroll MD, Johnson CL. Apolipoprotein B and A-I distribution in the United States, 1988–1991: results of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III). Clin Chem 1997; 43:2364–78.

  • 23

    Jungner I, Marcovina S, Walldius G, Holme I, Kolar W, Steiner E. Apolipoprotein B and A-I values in 147576 Swedish males and females, standardized according to the World Health Organization – International Federation of Clinical Chemistry First International Reference Materials. Clin Chem 1998; 44:1641–9.

  • 24

    Jungner I, Walldius G, Holme I, Kolar W, Steiner E. Apolipoprotein B and A-I in relation to serum cholesterol and triglycerides in 43000 Swedish males and females. Int J Lab Res 1992; 21:247–55. [Crossref]

  • 25

    Friedewald WT, Levy RJ, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 1972; 18:499–502.

  • 26

    Yusuf S, Hawken S, Öunpuu S, Dans T, Avezum A, Lanas F, et al. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study. Lancet 2004; 364:937–52.

  • 27

    O'Keefe JH Jr, Cordain L, Harris WH, Moe RM, Vogel R. Optimal low-density lipoprotein is 50 to 70mg/dl. Lower is better and physiologically normal. Expedited review. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004; 43:2142–6. [Crossref]

  • 28

    Davidson MH. Emerging therapeutic strategies for the management of dyslipidemia in patients with metabolic syndrome. Am J Cardiol 2004; 93:Suppl:3C–11C. [Crossref]

  • 29

    Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Merz CNB, Brewer HB Jr, Clark LT, Hunninghake DB, et al. Implications of recent clinical trials for the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III Guidelines. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2004; 24:e149–161. [Crossref]

  • 30

    Gotto AM, Whitney E, Stein EA, Shapiro DR, Clearfield M, Weiss S, et al. Relation between baseline and on-treatment lipid parameters and first acute major coronary events in the Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (AFCAPS/TexCAPS). Circulation 2000; 101:477–84. [Crossref]

  • 31

    Barter PJ, Rye K. Molecular mechanisms of reverse cholesterol transport. Curr Opin Lipidol 1996; 7:82–7. [Crossref]

  • 32

    Nissen SE, Tsunoda T, Tuzcu EM, Schoenhagen P, Cooper CJ, Yasin M, et al. Effect of recombinant apoA-I Milano on coronary athersclerosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Assoc 2003; 290:2322–4.

  • 33

    Walldius G, Jungner I. Apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein A-I: risk indicators of coronary heart disease and targets for lipid-lowering therapy. J Intern Med 2004; 255:188–205.

  • 34

    Williams K, Sniderman AD, Sattar N, D'Agostino R Jr, Wagenknecht LE, Haffner SM. Comparison of the associations of apolipoprotein B and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with other cardiovascular risk factors in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS). Circulation 2003; 108:2312–6. [Crossref]

  • 35

    Sniderman AD. Applying apoB to the diagnosis and therapy of the atherogenic dyslipoproteinemias: a clinical diagnostic algorithm. Curr Opin Lipidol 2004; 15:433–8. [Crossref]

  • 36

    Collins-Nakai RL, Daganais GR. The role of the cardiovascular specialist in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases – executive summary. Can J Cardiol 1999;Suppl G:7G–16G.

  • 37

    Leiter LA, Mahon J, Chye T. Macrovascular complications, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Can J Diabetes 2003;Suppl 2:S58–65.

  • 38

    Scharnagl H, Nauck M, Wieland H, März W. The Friedewald formula underestimates LDL cholesterol at low concentrations. Clin Chem Lab Med 2001; 39:426–31. [Crossref]

  • 39

    Sniderman AD, Blank D, Zakarian R, Bergeron J, Frohlich J. Triglycerides and small dense LDL; the twin Achilles heels of the Friedewald formula. Clin Biochem 2003; 36:499–504. [Crossref]

  • 40

    Otvos JD. Why cholesterol measurements may be misleading about lipoprotein levels and cardiovasculardisease risk – clinical implications of lipoprotein quantification using NMR spectroscopy. J Lab Med 2002; 26:544–50.

  • 41

    Miller WG, Waymack PP, Anderson PA, Ethridge SF, Jayne EC. Performance of four homogeneous direct methods for LDL-cholesterol. Clin Chem 2002; 48: 489–98.

  • 42

    Usui S, Kakuuchi H, Okamoto M, Mizukami Y, Okazaki M. Differential reactivity of two homogeneous LDL-cholesterol methods to LDL, and VLDL subfractions, as demonstrated by ultracentrifugation and HPLC. Clin Chem 2002; 48:1946–54.

  • 43

    Steinmetz J, Cases E, Couderc R, Beucler I, Legrand A, Henney J. Reference values of apolipoprotein A-I and B. Contribution of international standardization. Ann Biol Clin 1997; 55:451–4.

  • 44

    Mendis S, Yach D, Bengoa R, Narvaez D, Zhang X. Research gap in cardiovascular disease in developing countries. Lancet 2003; 361:2246–7.

About the article

Corresponding author: Prof. G. Walldius, AstraZeneca, 431 83 Molndal, Sweden Phone: +46-31-7762678, Fax: +46-31-7763802,


Received: 2004-08-18

Accepted: 2004-10-05

Published Online: 2005-06-01

Published in Print: 2004-12-01



Citation Information: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM), ISSN (Online) 1437-4331, ISSN (Print) 1434-6621, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/CCLM.2004.254. Export Citation

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Paschalis Steiropoulos, Venetia Tsara, Evangelia Nena, Christina Fitili, Margarita Kataropoulou, Marios Froudarakis, Pandora Christaki, and Demosthenes Bouros
Chest, 2007, Volume 132, Number 3, Page 843
[2]
Yongyan Song, Yang Yang, Jingxiao Zhang, Yanmei Wang, Wenfeng He, Xiaoming Zhang, Jie Zhu, and Zhan Lu
Lipids in Health and Disease, 2015, Volume 14, Number 1
[3]
Tzortzis Nomikos, Demosthenes Panagiotakos, Ekavi Georgousopoulou, Vassiliki Metaxa, Christina Chrysohoou, Ioannis Skoumas, Smaragdi Antonopoulou, Dimitrios Tousoulis, Christodoulos Stefanadis, and Christos Pitsavos
Lipids in Health and Disease, 2015, Volume 14, Number 1
[4]
Ramesh Saeedi, Kevin Johns, Jiri Frohlich, Matthew T. Bennett, and Gregory Bondy
Lipids in Health and Disease, 2015, Volume 14, Number 1
[5]
Giuseppe Castaldo, Luigi Monaco, Laura Castaldo, and Paolo Sorrentino
International Journal of Endocrinology, 2015, Volume 2015, Page 1
[6]
Anastasiya M. Kaneva, Natalya N. Potolitsyna, Evgeny R. Bojko, and Jon Ø. Odland
Disease Markers, 2015, Volume 2015, Page 1
[7]
Roberto S Kalil, Jeffrey H Wang, Ian H de Boer, Roy O Mathew, Joachim H Ix, Arif Asif, Xuefeng Shi, and William E Boden
Kidney International, 2015, Volume 87, Number 6, Page 1250
[8]
Amirhosein Khoshi, Yousef Mortazavi, Sepideh Sokhanvar, Asal Tanzifi, Abbas Akbari, Sadraddin Kalantari, and Saeideh Mazloomzadeh
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 2015
[9]
James Backshall, Gary A. Ford, Bilal Bawamia, Louise Quinn, Mike Trenell, and Vijay Kunadian
Cardiology in Review, 2015, Volume 23, Number 1, Page 18
[10]
X. Wang, B. Chen, N. Lv, Q. Liu, and Aimin Dang
Clinical Rheumatology, 2015, Volume 34, Number 7, Page 1243
[11]
Yu-Ching Chou, Jen-Chun Kuan, Chyi-Huey Bai, Tsan Yang, Wan-Yun Chou, Po-Chien Hsieh, San-Lin You, Lee-Ching Hwang, Chien-Hua Chen, Cheng-Yu Wei, and Chien-An Sun
Endocrine, 2015, Volume 49, Number 2, Page 404
[12]
Daniel Fernández-Bergés, Luciano Consuegra-Sánchez, Judith Peñafiel, Antonio Cabrera de León, Joan Vila, Francisco Javier Félix-Redondo, Antonio Segura-Fragoso, José Lapetra, María Jesús Guembe, Tomás Vega, Montse Fitó, Roberto Elosua, Oscar Díaz, and Jaume Marrugat
Revista Española de Cardiología, 2014, Volume 67, Number 8, Page 624
[13]
M Öhman, M-L Öhman, and S Wållberg-Jonsson
Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, 2014, Volume 43, Number 4, Page 259
[14]
L. Tian and M. Fu
Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 2011, Volume 34, Number 6, Page 461
[15]
Ewa Dembowski and Michael H. Davidson
Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention, 2009, Volume 29, Number 1, Page 2
[16]
G. A. Kaysen, L. S. Dalrymple, B. Grimes, G. M. Chertow, J. Kornak, and K. L. Johansen
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 2014, Volume 29, Number 2, Page 430
[17]
Mohammed Al-Hijji, Seth S. Martin, Parag H. Joshi, and Steven R. Jones
The American Journal of Cardiology, 2013, Volume 112, Number 10, Page 1697
[18]
Welma Stonehouse, Cheryl S. Gammon, Kathryn L. Beck, Cathryn A. Conlon, Pamela R. von Hurst, and Rozanne Kruger
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 2013, Volume 91, Number 6, Page 442
[19]
Haïfa Mahjoub, Patrick Mathieu, Mario Sénéchal, Eric Larose, Jean Dumesnil, Jean-Pierre Després, and Philippe Pibarot
Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 2013, Volume 61, Number 7, Page 752
[20]
Jae-Hong Ryoo
American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 2013, Volume 61, Number 4, Page 564
[21]
Qianqian Yin, Xiaoli Chen, Lin Li, Ran Zhou, Jia Huang, and Dongzi Yang
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, 2013, Volume 39, Number 1, Page 203
[22]
S. Mathieu, B. Pereira, J.-J. Dubost, J.-R. Lusson, and M. Soubrier
Rheumatology, 2012, Volume 51, Number 6, Page 1107
[23]
Manoj Kumar, Ravinder Nagpal, Rajesh Kumar, R. Hemalatha, Vinod Verma, Ashok Kumar, Chaitali Chakraborty, Birbal Singh, Francesco Marotta, Shalini Jain, and Hariom Yadav
Experimental Diabetes Research, 2012, Volume 2012, Page 1
[24]
Justo Sierra-Johnson, Virend Kristen Somers, Fatima Helena Sert Kuniyoshi, Carolina Ana Garza, William Luther Isley, Apoor Suresh Gami, and Francisco Lopez-Jimenez
The American Journal of Cardiology, 2006, Volume 98, Number 10, Page 1369
[25]
Martin J. Holzmann, Ingmar Jungner, Göran Walldius, Torbjörn Ivert, Tobias Nordqvist, Jan Östergren, and Niklas Hammar
Annals of Medicine, 2012, Volume 44, Number 3, Page 262
[26]
S. Lundberg, I. Gunnarsson, and S. H. Jacobson
Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, 2012, Volume 46, Number 2, Page 148
[27]
A. Onat, G. Hergenç, S. Bulur, M. Uğur, Z. Küçükdurmaz, and G. Can
International Journal of Cardiology, 2010, Volume 142, Number 1, Page 72
[28]
Nicolás Terrados, Gracia Valcárcel, and Rafael Venta
Apunts. Medicina de l'Esport, 2010, Volume 45, Number 167, Page 201
[29]
Allan D. Sniderman and Santica M. Marcovina
Clinics in Laboratory Medicine, 2006, Volume 26, Number 4, Page 733
[30]
Helen M. Heneghan, Hazel Huang, Sangeeta R. Kashyap, Heather L. Gornik, Arthur J. McCullough, Philip R. Schauer, Stacy A. Brethauer, John P. Kirwan, and Takhar Kasumov
Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases, 2013, Volume 9, Number 1, Page 100
[32]
Shali Xie, Jundong Zhu, Yanqi Zhang, Kai Shi, Yuangang Shi, and Xiao Ma
British Journal of Nutrition, 2012, Volume 108, Number 04, Page 603
[33]
[34]
M. M. Ould Mohamedou, K. Zouirech, M. El Messal, M. S. El Kebbaj, A. Chraibi, and A. Adlouni
International Journal of Endocrinology, 2011, Volume 2011, Page 1
[36]
Adriano Paula Sabino, Marinez De Oliveira Sousa, Luciana Moreira Lima, Daniel Dias Ribeiro, Luci Maria Sant'Ana Dusse, Maria Das Graças Carvalho, and Ana Paula Fernandes
Translational Research, 2008, Volume 152, Number 3, Page 113
[37]
Göran Walldius and Ingmar Jungner
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 2007, Volume 17, Number 8, Page 565
[38]
Angeliki Triantafyllou, Nikolaos Chaviaras, Theodoros N. Sergentanis, Evaggelia Protopapa, and John Tsaknis
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2007, Volume 111, Number 1, Page 43
[39]
Sunčica Kojić-Damjanov, Mirjana đerić, Velibor Čabarkapa, and Ljiljana Vučurević-Ristić
Journal of Medical Biochemistry, 2007, Volume 26, Number 3
[40]
Li Tian, Xinwei Wu, Mingde Fu, Yang Qin, Yanhua Xu, and Lianqun Jia
Clinica Chimica Acta, 2008, Volume 388, Number 1-2, Page 148
[42]
Chung-Yu Chang, Yung-Chieh Tsai, Chien-Hung Lee, Te-Fu Chan, Shih-Han Wang, and Juin-Huang Su
Fertility and Sterility, 2011, Volume 95, Number 8, Page 2520
[43]
Hamilton M. Hinuy, Mario H. Hirata, Marcelo F. Sampaio, Dikran Armaganijan, Luis A. Salazar, and Rosario D.C. Hirata
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, 2006, Volume 89, Number 4, Page 374
[44]
I. Gambardella, P.H. Blair, A. McKinley, R. Baker, and D.W. Harkin
European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, 2011, Volume 41, Number 2, Page 249
[45]
Charlotte Ebeling Barbier, Lars Lind, Håkan Ahlström, Anders Larsson, and Lars Johansson
Atherosclerosis, 2010, Volume 211, Number 2, Page 656
[46]
Ganesan Karthikeyan, Koon K. Teo, Shofiqul Islam, Mathew J. McQueen, Prem Pais, Xingyu Wang, Hiroshi Sato, Chim Choy Lang, Chitr Sitthi-Amorn, M.R. Pandey, Khawar Kazmi, John E. Sanderson, and Salim Yusuf
Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 2009, Volume 53, Number 3, Page 244
[47]
Michael H. Davidson
The American Journal of Cardiology, 2007, Volume 99, Number 4, Page 41
[48]
Åsa Lindholm, Marie Bixo, Inger Björn, Pål Wölner-Hanssen, Mats Eliasson, Anders Larsson, Owe Johnson, and Inger Sundström Poromaa
Fertility and Sterility, 2008, Volume 89, Number 5, Page 1221
[50]
Matthew J McQueen, Steven Hawken, Xingyu Wang, Stephanie Ounpuu, Allan Sniderman, Jeffrey Probstfield, Krisela Steyn, John E Sanderson, Mohammad Hasani, Emilia Volkova, Khawar Kazmi, and Salim Yusuf
The Lancet, 2008, Volume 372, Number 9634, Page 224
[51]
Lars H. Breimer and D.P. Mikhailidis
Current Medical Research and Opinion, 2010, Volume 26, Number 11, Page 2701
[52]
Vladimir Soska, Jindrich Fiala, Katerina Nebeska, Jiri Jarkovsky, and Drahoslava Hruba
Scandinavian Journal of Clinical & Laboratory Investigation, 2011, Page 1
[53]
Mehdi Rasouli, Asadollah Mohseni Kiasari, and Vahid Mokhberi
Clinical Chemical Laboratory Medicine, 2006, Volume 44, Number 8
[54]
[56]
Li Zhong, Qifu Li, Yuanjuan Jiang, Dan Cheng, Zhoujun Liu, Bangqiong Wang, Rong Luo, Qingfeng Cheng, and Hua Qing
Inflammation, 2010, Volume 33, Number 6, Page 353
[57]
O Ben Ounis, M Elloumi, E Makni, H Zouhal, M Amri, Z Tabka, and G Lac
Acta Paediatrica, 2010, Volume 99, Number 11, Page 1679
[58]
Mia Hedman, Raija Pahlman, Jouko Sundvall, Christian Ehnholm, Mikko Syvänne, Eero Jokinen, Matti Jauhiainen, Christer Holmberg, and Marjatta Antikainen
Pediatric Transplantation, 2007, Volume 11, Number 5, Page 481
[59]
J. R. H. Raiko, J. S. A. Viikari, A. Ilmanen, N. Hutri-Kähönen, L. Taittonen, E. Jokinen, M. Pietikäinen, A. Jula, B.-M. Loo, J. Marniemi, T. Lehtimäki, M. Kähönen, T. Rönnemaa, O. T. Raitakari, and M. Juonala
Journal of Internal Medicine, 2010, Volume 267, Number 4, Page 370
[60]
Amirhosein Khoshi, Yousof Mortazavi, Abbass Akbari, Sepideh Sokhanvar, and Sadraddin Kalantari
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 2009, Volume 24, Number 4, Page 381
[61]
Riza C Ozsoy, Sander I van Leuven, John JP Kastelein, Lambertus Arisz, and Marion G Koopman
Current Opinion in Lipidology, 2006, Volume 17, Number 6, Page 659
[62]
Robert D. Brook, Hardik Doshi, Robert L. Bard, and Melvyn Rubenfire
Clinical Cardiology, 2009, Volume 32, Number 5, Page 251
[63]
S. Yuditskaya, A. Tumblin, G. T. Hoehn, G. Wang, S. K. Drake, X. Xu, S. Ying, A. H. Chi, A. T. Remaley, R.-F. Shen, P. J. Munson, A. F. Suffredini, and G. J. Kato
Blood, 2008, Volume 113, Number 5, Page 1122
[64]
J. Sierra-Johnson, R. M. Fisher, A. Romero-Corral, V. K. Somers, F. Lopez-Jimenez, J. Ohrvik, G. Walldius, M.-L. Hellenius, and A. Hamsten
European Heart Journal, 2008, Volume 30, Number 6, Page 710
[65]
Shirley C. Chen, Joseph T. Judd, Matthew Kramer, Gert W. Meijer, Beverly A. Clevidence, and David J. Baer
Lipids, 2009, Volume 44, Number 3, Page 273
[66]
I. Holme, A. H. Aastveit, N. Hammar, I. Jungner, and G. Walldius
Journal of Internal Medicine, 2009, Volume 265, Number 2, Page 275
[67]
Lucia Agoston-Coldea, Teodora Mocan, Marc Gatfossé, and Dan Dumitrascu
Open Medicine, 2008, Volume 3, Number 4
[69]
Irene F. Gazi, Haralampos J. Milionis, Theodosios D. Filippatos, Vasilis Tsimihodimos, Michael S. Kostapanos, Michael Doumas, Alexandros D. Tselepis, and Moses Elisaf
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, 2008, Volume 24, Number 3, Page 223
[70]
Allan D. Sniderman and Robert S. Kiss
Current Atherosclerosis Reports, 2007, Volume 9, Number 4, Page 261
[72]
G??ran Walldius and Ingmar Jungner
Current Opinion in Cardiology, 2007, Volume 22, Number 4, Page 359
[73]
Kan-Zhi Liu, Angela Man, Thomas C. Dembinski, and R. Anthony Shaw
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2007, Volume 387, Number 5, Page 1809
[74]
S. M. Marcovina, F. Crea, J. Davignon, J. C. Kaski, W. Koenig, U. Landmesser, P. L. Pieri, J. Schulz-Menger, L. J. Shaw, and J. Sobesky
Journal of Internal Medicine, 2007, Volume 261, Number 3, Page 214
[75]
Débora Vieira Soares, Luciana Diniz Carneiro Spina, Rosane Resende de Lima Oliveira Brasil, Priscila Marise Lobo, Elizabeth Salles, Claúdia Medina Coeli, Flávia Lúcia Conceição, and Mario Vaisman
Pituitary, 2006, Volume 9, Number 2, Page 127
[77]
G. WALLDIUS, A. H. AASTVEIT, and I. JUNGNER
Journal of Internal Medicine, 2006, Volume 259, Number 3, Page 259
[79]
B. H. R. WOLFFENBUTTEL, A. A. M. FRANKEN, and H. H. VINCENT
Journal of Internal Medicine, 2005, Volume 257, Number 6, Page 531

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in