Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details

Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM)

Published in Association with the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM)

Editor-in-Chief: Plebani, Mario

Ed. by Gillery, Philippe / Lackner, Karl J. / Lippi, Giuseppe / Melichar, Bohuslav / Payne, Deborah A. / Schlattmann, Peter / Tate, Jillian R.

12 Issues per year


IMPACT FACTOR increased in 2015: 3.017
Rank 5 out of 30 in category Medical Laboratory Technology in the 2014 Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Report/Science Edition

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2015: 0.873
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2015: 0.982
Impact per Publication (IPP) 2015: 2.238

Online
ISSN
1437-4331
See all formats and pricing
Volume 44, Issue 5 (May 2006)

Issues

Serum homocysteine levels and paraoxonase 1 activity in preschool aged children in Greece

George A. Karikas
  • Department of Medical Laboratories, Technological and Educational Institution of Athens (TEI-A), Athens, Greece
/ Anastasios Kriebardis
  • Department of Medical Laboratories, Technological and Educational Institution of Athens (TEI-A), Athens, Greece
/ Ioanna Samara
  • Biochemical Laboratory, Hospital “Sotiria”, Athens, Greece
/ Kleopatra Schulpis
  • Institute of Child Health, “Aghia Sophia” Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece
/ Maria Papachristodoulou
  • Department of Medical Laboratories, Technological and Educational Institution of Athens (TEI-A), Athens, Greece
/ Athena Fytou-Pallikari
  • Department of Medical Laboratories, Technological and Educational Institution of Athens (TEI-A), Athens, Greece
Published Online: 2011-09-21 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/CCLM.2006.110

Abstract

Background: Over the past decade, it has been well established that elevated total serum homocysteine (tHcy) in adults is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and thromboembolic diseases. Since risk factors for such diseases are established at a young age, the aim of the present study was to measure serum tHcy levels in 134 (71 boys, 63 girls) randomly selected healthy preschool children aged 4–6years (mean 5.1), and to investigate possible correlation with paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity, an antioxidant enzyme that contributes to the antiatherogenic properties of high-density lipoprotein (HDL).

Methods: tHcy was determined using an IMX tHcy assay (FPIA). PON1 was measured by a spectrophotometric method at 412nm.

Results: Mean serum tHcy was 7.71±2.35μmol/L. A relatively significant percentage (15.6%) of boys and girls had elevated serum tHcy levels (>10μmol/L). tHcy levels were slightly higher in girls compared to boys (8.20±2.80 vs. 7.29±1.79μmol/L, respectively; p<0.11). There was no significant interaction between age and tHcy levels. Mean PON1 activity was 124.86±66.62U/L. No statistical difference in enzyme activity was observed between boys and girls (126.81±69.99 vs. 121.74±64.78U/L) was observed. On the contrary, a weak negative relationship between tHcy concentration and PON1 activity was detected, with Pearson's correlation coefficient of r=−0.27.

Conclusions: The significant percentage of elevated tHcy levels observed in healthy preschool cases and the negative tHcy correlation with PON1 activity are reported for the first time. Since children with a family history of cardiovascular disease have higher levels of serum Hcy, tHcy screening in children, even of this age, in relation to other parameters, such the protective PON1, might prove a useful prevention procedure for the genetic risk of premature atherosclerosis.

Keywords: age; cardiovascular disease; children; homocysteine; paraoxonase; sex

References

  • 1.

    Malinow MR, Kang SS, Taylor LM, Wong PW. Prevalence I hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Circulation 1989; 79:1180–8. [Crossref]

  • 2.

    McCully KS. Vascular pathology of homocysteinemia: implications for the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis. Am J Pathol 1969; 56:111–28.

  • 3.

    Bouchey CJ, Beresford SA, Omenn GS, Motulsky AG. A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. J Am Med Assoc 1995; 274:1049–57.

  • 4.

    The European Concerted Action Project. Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. J Am Med Assoc 1997;277:1775–81.

  • 5.

    Nygard O, Nordrehang JE, Refsum H, Ueland PM, Farstad M, Vollset SE. Plasma homocysteine levels and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 1997; 337:230–6.

  • 6.

    Frosst P, Blom HJ, Milos R. A candidate genetic risk factor for vascular disease: a common mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. Nat Genet 1995; 10:111–3. [Crossref]

  • 7.

    Delvin EE, Rosen R, Merouani A, Genest J, Lambert M. Influence of MTHFR genotype, age, vitamin B12 and folate status on plasma homocysteine in children. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 72:1469–73.

  • 8.

    van der Mooren MJ, Wouters MG, Blom HJ, Schellekens LA, Eskes TK, Rolland R. Hormone replacement therapy may reduce high serum homocysteine in postmenopausal women. Eur J Clin Invest 1994; 24:733–6. [Crossref]

  • 9.

    Schulpis KH, Karikas GA, Papakonstantinou E. Homocysteine and other vascular risk factors in patients with phenylketonuria on a diet. Acta Paediatr 2002; 91:905–9.

  • 10.

    Osganian SK, Stampfer MJ, Spiegelman D, Rimm E, Cutler JA, Feldmam HA, et al. Distribution of and factors associated with serum Hcy levels in children: Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health. J Am Med Assoc 1999; 281:1189–96.

  • 11.

    Tonstad S, Refsum H, Sivertsen M, Christophersen B, Ose L, Ueland PM. Relation of total homocysteine and lipid levels in children to premature cardiovascular death in male relatives. Pediatr Res 1996; 40:47–52. [Crossref]

  • 12.

    Vilaseca MA, Moyano D, Ferrer I, Artuch R. Total Hcy in pediatric patients. Clin Chem 1997; 43:690–2.

  • 13.

    Kahn A. Plasma Hcy concentration in a Belgian school-age population. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:968–72.

  • 14.

    Must A, Jacques PF, Rogers G, Rosemberg IH, Selhub J. Serum total homocysteine concentrations in children and adolescents: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). J Nutr 2003; 133:2643–9.

  • 15.

    Valabhji J, McCall AJ, Schachter M, Dhanjil S, Richmond W, Elkeles RS. High density lipoprotein composition and paraoxonase activity in type I diabetes. Clin Sci 2001; 101:659–70.

  • 16.

    Mackness B, Durrington PN, Boulton AJ, Hine D, Mackness MI. Serum paraoxonase activity in patients with type I diabetes compared to healthy controls. Eur J Clin Invest 2002; 32:259–64. [Crossref]

  • 17.

    Durrington PN, Mackness B, Mackness MI. Paraoxonase and atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2001; 21:473–80. [Crossref]

  • 18.

    Jakubowski H. Calcium-dependent human serum homocysteine thiolactone hydrolase. J Biol Chem 2000; 275:3957–62.

  • 19.

    Rosenblat M, Grunfeld O, Hayek T, Aviram M. Serum paraoxonase activity and the extent of lipid peroxidation are not affected by increased levels of human apolipoprotein A-I: studies in transgenic mice. Clin Chem Lab Med 2002; 40:9–14. [Crossref]

  • 20.

    Pernet P, Lasnier E, Vaubourdolle M. Evaluation of the AxSYM homocysteine assay and comparison with the IMX homocysteine assay. Clin Chem 2000; 46:1440–1.

  • 21.

    Chimonas ET. The treatment of coronary heart disease; an update. Part 2. Mortality trends and main causes of death in the Greek population. Curr Med Res Opin 2001; 17:27–33.

  • 22.

    Ueland PM, Borke Monsen AL. Hyperhomocysteinemia and B-vitamin deficiencies in infants and children. Clin Chem Lab Med 2003; 41:1418–26. [Crossref]

  • 23.

    Bates CJ, Mansoor MA, Gregory J, Pentiev K, Prentice A. Correlates of plasma homocysteine, cysteine and cysteinyl-glycine in respondents in the British National Diet and Nutrition Survey of young people aged 4–18 years, and a comparison with the survey of people aged 65 years and over. Br J Nutr 2002; 87:71–9. [Crossref]

  • 24.

    Refsum H, Grindflek AW, Ueland PM, Fredriksen E, Meyer K, Ulvik A, et al. Screening for serum total homocysteine in newborn children. Clin Chem 2004; 50:1769–84.

  • 25.

    Reddy MN. Reference ranges for total homocysteine in children. Clin Chim Acta 1997; 262:153–5.

  • 26.

    De Laet C, Wautrecht JC, Brasseur D, Dramaix M, Boeynaems JM, Decuyper J, et al. Plasma homocysteine concentration in a Belgian school-age population. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69:968–72.

  • 27.

    Tonstad S, Refsum H, Ueland PM. Association between plasma total homocysteine and parental history of cardiovascular disease in children with familial hypercholesterolemia. Circulation 1997; 96:1803–8.

  • 28.

    Dedousis GV, Panagiotakos DB, Chrysohoou C, Pitsavos C, Zampelas A, Choumerianou D, et al. Effect of interaction between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C>T mutation on homocysteine concentrations in healthy adults: the ATTICA Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 80:849–54.

  • 29.

    Papoutsakis C, Yiannakouris N, Manios Y, Papaconstantinou E, Magkos F, Schulpis KH, et al. Plasma homocysteine concentrations in Greek children are influenced by an interaction between the methylenetetrahdrofolate reductase C677T genotype and folate status. J Nutr 2005; 135:383–8.

  • 30.

    Kark JD, Sinnreich R, Rosenberg IH, Jacques PF, Selhub J. Plasma homocysteine and parental myocardial infarction in young adults in Jerusalem. Circulation 2002; 105:2725–9.

  • 31.

    Hogeveen M, Blom HJ, Van Amerongen M, Boogmans B, Van Beynum IM, Van De Bor M. Hyperhomocysteinemia as risk factor for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in new-born infants. J Pediatr 2002; 141:429–31.

About the article

Corresponding author: Dr. G.A. Karikas, TEI-A, Ag. Spiridonos St., Egaleo 12210, Athens, Greece Phone/Fax: +30-210-5385629,


Received: 2005-12-29

Accepted: 2006-02-13

Published Online: 2011-09-21

Published in Print: 2006-05-01


Citation Information: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM), ISSN (Online) 1437-4331, ISSN (Print) 1434-6621, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/CCLM.2006.110. Export Citation

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Priscila Nicolao Mazzola, George Albert Karikas, Kleopatra H. Schulpis, and Carlos Severo Dutra-Filho
Metabolic Brain Disease, 2013, Volume 28, Number 4, Page 541
[2]
Xiao-Qing Tang, Rong-Qian Chen, Ling Dong, Yan-Kai Ren, Piero Del Soldato, Anna Sparatore, and Duan-Fang Liao
Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, 2013, Volume 50, Number 1, Page 70
[3]
Ahmet Koc, Murad Cengiz, Zeynep Canan Ozdemir, and Hakim Celik
Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, 2012, Volume 29, Number 4, Page 345
[4]
Carmen Garcés, Laura López-Simón, Rafael Rubio, Mercedes Benavente, Beatriz Cano, Enrique Viturro, and Manuel de Oya
Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis, 2007, Volume 19, Number 6, Page 287
[5]
Zhi-Gang She, Hou-Zao Chen, Yunfei Yan, Hongliang Li, and De-Pei Liu
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 2012, Volume 16, Number 6, Page 597
[6]
Maria Dronca, Sergiu P. Paşca, Bogdan Nemeş, Laurian Vlase, and Dan Vladutiu
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 2008, Volume 46, Number 6
[7]
Karen Huen, Kim Harley, Jordan Brooks, Alan Hubbard, Asa Bradman, Brenda Eskenazi, and Nina Holland
Environmental Health Perspectives, 2009, Volume 117, Number 10, Page 1632
[8]
J. Hamelet, E. Aït-Yahya-Graison, E. Matulewicz, C. Noll, A. Badel-Chagnon, A-C. Camproux, K. Demuth, J-L. Paul, J. M. Delabar, and N. Janel
European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2007, Volume 37, Number 12, Page 933

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in