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Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM)

Published in Association with the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM)

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Ed. by Gillery, Philippe / Lackner, Karl J. / Lippi, Giuseppe / Melichar, Bohuslav / Payne, Deborah A. / Schlattmann, Peter / Tate, Jillian R.

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Volume 44, Issue 7 (Jul 2006)


Flow-cytometric immunophenotyping of normal and malignant lymphocytes

Tomasz Szczepański
  • Department of Immunology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands and Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Silesian Medical Academy, Zabrze, Poland
/ Vincent H.J. van der Velden
  • Department of Immunology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
/ Jacques J.M. van Dongen
  • Department of Immunology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Published Online: 2006-06-16 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/CCLM.2006.146


During the past two decades, flow-cytometric immunophenotyping of lymphocytes has evolved from a research technique into a routine laboratory diagnostic test. Extensive studies in healthy individuals resulted in detailed age-related reference values for different lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood. This is an important tool for the diagnosis of hematological and immunological disorders. Similar, albeit less detailed, information is now available for other lymphoid organs, e.g., normal bone marrow, lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus and spleen. Flow-cytometric immunophenotyping forms the basis of modern classification of acute and chronic leukemias and is increasingly applied for initial diagnostic work-up of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Finally, with multiparameter flow cytometry, it is now possible to identify routinely and reliably low numbers of leukemia and lymphoma cells (minimal residual disease).

Clin Chem Lab Med 2006;44:775–96.

Keywords: bone marrow; CD markers; flow cytometry; leukemias; lymph node; lymphocyte; lymphomas; minimal residual disease; peripheral blood


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About the article

Corresponding author: Prof. J.J.M. van Dongen, MD, PhD, Department of Immunology, Erasmus MC, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands Phone: +31-10-4088094, Fax: +31-10-4089456,

Received: 2006-02-14

Accepted: 2006-03-17

Published Online: 2006-06-16

Published in Print: 2006-07-01

Citation Information: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM), ISSN (Online) 1437-4331, ISSN (Print) 1434-6621, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/CCLM.2006.146. Export Citation

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