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Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM)

Published in Association with the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM)

Editor-in-Chief: Plebani, Mario

Ed. by Gillery, Philippe / Lackner, Karl J. / Lippi, Giuseppe / Melichar, Bohuslav / Payne, Deborah A. / Schlattmann, Peter / Tate, Jillian R.

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Flow-cytometric immunophenotyping of normal and malignant lymphocytes

Tomasz Szczepański1 / Vincent H.J. van der Velden2 / Jacques J.M. van Dongen3




Corresponding author: Prof. J.J.M. van Dongen, MD, PhD, Department of Immunology, Erasmus MC, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands Phone: +31-10-4088094, Fax: +31-10-4089456,

Citation Information: Clinical Chemical Laboratory Medicine. Volume 44, Issue 7, Pages 775–796, ISSN (Online) 1437-4331, ISSN (Print) 1434-6621, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/CCLM.2006.146, June 2006

Publication History

February 14, 2006
March 17, 2006
Published Online:


During the past two decades, flow-cytometric immunophenotyping of lymphocytes has evolved from a research technique into a routine laboratory diagnostic test. Extensive studies in healthy individuals resulted in detailed age-related reference values for different lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood. This is an important tool for the diagnosis of hematological and immunological disorders. Similar, albeit less detailed, information is now available for other lymphoid organs, e.g., normal bone marrow, lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus and spleen. Flow-cytometric immunophenotyping forms the basis of modern classification of acute and chronic leukemias and is increasingly applied for initial diagnostic work-up of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Finally, with multiparameter flow cytometry, it is now possible to identify routinely and reliably low numbers of leukemia and lymphoma cells (minimal residual disease).

Clin Chem Lab Med 2006;44:775–96.

Keywords: bone marrow; CD markers; flow cytometry; leukemias; lymph node; lymphocyte; lymphomas; minimal residual disease; peripheral blood

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