Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM)

Published in Association with the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM)

Editor-in-Chief: Plebani, Mario

Ed. by Gillery, Philippe / Greaves, Ronda / Lackner, Karl J. / Lippi, Giuseppe / Melichar, Bohuslav / Payne, Deborah A. / Schlattmann, Peter

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 3.638

CiteScore 2018: 2.44

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 1.191
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.205

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 46, Issue 4


Free fatty acids as a cardiovascular risk factor

Stefan Pilz
  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria, Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria and Department of Public Health, Social and Preventive Medicine, Mannheim Medical Faculty, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Winfried März
  • 2Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria, Department of Public Health, Social and Preventive Medicine, Mannheim Medical Faculty, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany and Synlab Center of Laboratory Diagnostics, Heidelberg, Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar


Free fatty acids (FFAs) serve as physiologically important energy substrates and their release from the adipose tissue by lipolysis is regulated according to the energy demands of the body. FFAs are increased in obese patients and contribute to type 2 diabetes, hepatic steatosis and several cardiovascular diseases. In patients with heart failure and acute coronary syndromes, elevated FFA levels are a consequence of an increased lipolysis due to a surge in catecholamines and natriuretic peptides. FFAs contribute to myocardial dysfunction and are proarrhythmic, and their oxidation requires more oxygen than does glycolysis. Therapeutic approaches have already emerged that aim to reduce the uptake and/or oxidation of fatty acids in the myocardium. The routine use of FFAs as a diagnostic tool is limited by their high variability, this being strongly influenced by nutrition and the effects of several hormones. In addition, it remains to be clarified whether fasting or postprandial values or dynamic measurements such as changes in FFA concentrations induced by stress are better parameters for evaluating cardiovascular risk. In this review, we present an overview of the metabolism and role of FFAs as a cardiovascular risk factor and discuss the potential of FFAs in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2008;46:429–34.

Keywords: atherosclerosis; cardiovascular diseases; epidemiology; free fatty acids (FFAs); heart failure; non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs)

About the article

Corresponding author: Stefan Pilz, Wassergasse 8, 8010 Graz, Austria Tel: +43 650 9103667, Fax: +43 316 673216,

Published in Print: 2008-04-01

Citation Information: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 429–434, ISSN (Online) 14374331, ISSN (Print) 1434-6621, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/CCLM.2008.118.

Export Citation

©2008 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin New York.Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Karine Suissa, Andrea Benedetti, Mélanie Henderson, Katherine Gray-Donald, and Gilles Paradis
Annals of Epidemiology, 2019
James P. C. Coverdale, James P. Barnett, Adamu H. Adamu, Ellie J. Griffiths, Alan J. Stewart, and Claudia A. Blindauer
Metallomics, 2019
Youdong Li, Liang Zhang, Yong-Jiang Xu, Jinwei Li, Peirang Cao, and Yuanfa Liu
Food & Function, 2019
Amélie I. S. Sobczak, Claudia A. Blindauer, and Alan J. Stewart
Nutrients, 2019, Volume 11, Number 9, Page 2022
Javier Lizardi-Cervera and Daniel Aguilar-Zapata
Annals of Hepatology, 2009, Volume 8, Page S40
M.A. Crookenden, K.M. Moyes, B. Kuhn-Sherlock, K. Lehnert, C.G. Walker, J.J. Loor, M.D. Mitchell, A. Murray, V.S.R. Dukkipati, M. Vailati-Riboni, A. Heiser, and J.R. Roche
Journal of Dairy Science, 2019, Volume 102, Number 8, Page 7408
Ismena Mardani, Knut Tomas Dalen, Christina Drevinge, Azra Miljanovic, Marcus Ståhlman, Martina Klevstig, Margareta Scharin Täng, Per Fogelstrand, Max Levin, Matias Ekstrand, Syam Nair, Björn Redfors, Elmir Omerovic, Linda Andersson, Alan R. Kimmel, Jan Borén, and Malin C. Levin
Scientific Reports, 2019, Volume 9, Number 1
Negar Jamshidi, Nitin Mantri, and Marc M. Cohen
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 2019, Page 1
Woo-Keun Seo, Juyeon Kim, Yoo Hwan Kim, Ji Hyun Kim, Kyungmi Oh, Seong-Beom Koh, and Hong Seok Seo
Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences / Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques, 2011, Volume 38, Number 6, Page 874
Zibo Xiong, Hong Xu, Xiaoyan Huang, Johan Ärnlöv, Abdul Rashid Qureshi, Tommy Cederholm, Per Sjögren, Bengt Lindholm, Ulf Risérus, and Juan Jesús Carrero
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 2015, Volume 10, Number 4, Page 584
Lung-Chih Li, Jenq-Lin Yang, Wen-Chin Lee, Jin-Bor Chen, Chien-Te Lee, Pei-Wen Wang, Zac Vaghese, and Wei-Yu Chen
American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology, 2018, Volume 315, Number 6, Page F1720
Ferdinando Carlo Sasso, Luca Rinaldi, Nadia Lascar, Aldo Marrone, Pia Clara Pafundi, Luigi Elio Adinolfi, and Raffaele Marfella
Journal of Diabetes Research, 2018, Volume 2018, Page 1
Ying Liu, Ghislaine Charpin-El Hamri, Haifeng Ye, and Martin Fussenegger
Nucleic Acids Research, 2018
Charlotta Eriksson, Agneta Hilding, Andrei Pyko, Gösta Bluhm, Göran Pershagen, and Claes-Göran Östenson
Environmental Health Perspectives, 2014, Volume 122, Number 7, Page 687
Ilse C. Schrieks, Anna Nozza, Barbara E. Stähli, John B. Buse, Robert R. Henry, Klas Malmberg, Bruce Neal, Stephen J. Nicholls, Lars Rydén, Linda Mellbin, Anders Svensson, Hans Wedel, Arlette Weichert, A. Michael Lincoff, Jean-Claude Tardif, Diederick E. Grobbee, and Gregory G. Schwartz
Diabetes Care, 2018, Volume 41, Number 8, Page 1792
Youngae Jung, Youngjin Cho, Nami Kim, Il-Young Oh, Sang Won Kang, Eue-Keun Choi, Geum-Sook Hwang, and Yoshiaki Taniyama
PLOS ONE, 2018, Volume 13, Number 5, Page e0196709
Guilherme M. Puga, Christian Meyer, Lawrence J. Mandarino, and Christos S. Katsanos
The Journal of Nutrition, 2012, Volume 142, Number 10, Page 1806
Christos S. Katsanos
Advances in Nutrition, 2014, Volume 5, Number 3, Page 226
Robert M. Douglas and Gabriel G. Haddad
Physiology, 2008, Volume 23, Number 6, Page 333
Woo-Keun Seo, Jin-Man Jung, Ji Hyun Kim, Seong-Beom Koh, Oh Young Bang, and Kyungmi Oh
Cerebrovascular Diseases, 2017, Page 160
Hui-Wen Zhang, Xi Zhao, Yuan-Lin Guo, Cheng-Gang Zhu, Na-Qiong Wu, Jing Sun, Geng Liu, Qian Dong, and Jian-Jun Li
Nutrition & Metabolism, 2017, Volume 14, Number 1
Yi Wang, Yuanyuan Qian, Qilu Fang, Peng Zhong, Weixin Li, Lintao Wang, Weitao Fu, Yali Zhang, Zheng Xu, Xiaokun Li, and Guang Liang
Nature Communications, 2017, Volume 8, Page 13997
Denis Blache, Emmanuel Bourdon, Pauline Salloignon, Géraldine Lucchi, Patrick Ducoroy, Jean-Michel Petit, Bruno Verges, and Laurent Lagrost
Diabetes, 2015, Volume 64, Number 3, Page 960
Jonathan C. Jun and Vsevolod Y. Polotsky
Diabetologia, 2015, Volume 58, Number 4, Page 651
Erdim Sertoglu, Ismail Kurt, Serkan Tapan, Metin Uyanik, Muhittin A. Serdar, Huseyin Kayadibi, and Saad El-Fawaeir
Chemistry and Physics of Lipids, 2014, Volume 178, Page 11
L. Badimon, R. Hernández Vera, and G. Vilahur
Hämostaseologie, 2013, Volume 33, Number 4, Page 259
Eun Ju Lee, Ji Yeon Kim, Do Ram Kim, Kyoung Soo Kim, Mi Kyung Kim, and Oran Kwon
Nutrition Research and Practice, 2013, Volume 7, Number 4, Page 302
Yu-min Liu, Xiong Wang, Ahmed Nawaz, Zhao-hong Kong, Yan Hong, Chang-hua Wang, and Jun-jian Zhang
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 2011, Volume 32, Number 12, Page 1475
Hélène De Naeyer, D. Margriet Ouwens, Yves Van Nieuwenhove, Piet Pattyn, Leen M. ‘t Hart, Jean-Marc Kaufman, Henrike Sell, Juergen Eckel, Claude Cuvelier, Youri E. Taes, and Johannes B. Ruige
Obesity Facts, 2011, Volume 4, Number 5, Page 407
Sabrina Bauer, Josef Wanninger, Markus Neumeier, Sylvia Wurm, Johanna Weigert, Andrea Kopp, Margarita Bala, Andreas Schäffler, Charalampos Aslanidis, and Christa Buechler
Experimental and Molecular Pathology, 2011, Volume 90, Number 1, Page 101
Masood Pezeshkian, Mohammad-Reza Rashidi, Mohsen Varmazyar, Jalal Hanaee, Akbar Darbin, and Mohammad Nouri
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, 2011, Volume 9, Number 5, Page 403
Jan Polak, Martin Kotrc, Zuzana Wedellova, Antonin Jabor, Ivan Malek, Josef Kautzner, Ludmila Kazdova, and Vojtech Melenovsky
Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 2011, Volume 58, Number 11, Page 1119
Lutz P. Breitling, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Norma C. Grandi, Winfried März, and Hermann Brenner
The American Journal of Cardiology, 2011, Volume 108, Number 4, Page 508
G. Andres Contreras and Lorraine M. Sordillo
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 2011, Volume 34, Number 3, Page 281
Johannes B. Ruige
Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry, 2011, Volume 117, Number 1, Page 18
E. Erdmann and R. Wilcox
QJM, 2010, Volume 103, Number 4, Page 213
Nan Li, Jiang Wang, Feng Gao, Ying Tian, Rong Song, and Shan-jun Zhu
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, 2010, Volume 55, Number 2, Page 161

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in