Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM)

Published in Association with the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM)

Editor-in-Chief: Plebani, Mario

Ed. by Gillery, Philippe / Greaves, Ronda / Lackner, Karl J. / Lippi, Giuseppe / Melichar, Bohuslav / Payne, Deborah A. / Schlattmann, Peter

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 3.638

CiteScore 2018: 2.44

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 1.191
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.205

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 47, Issue 2


Effect of high levels of human chorionic gonadotropin and estradiol on the severity of hyperemesis gravidarum

Peng Chiong Tan / Nugroho C. Tan / Siti Z. Omar


Background: Serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and estradiol levels are higher in women with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) than in unaffected pregnant controls. We postulated that higher levels of these hormones may be associated with clinically more severe HG. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal hCG and estradiol levels on the severity of HG.

Methods: A prospective study was performed on 167 first trimester women hospitalized for HG. Venous blood was taken for hCG and estradiol levels. Scattergrams were plotted for hCG or estradiol levels vs. gestational age. A curve of best fit was drawn. Women were categorized into two groups according to their position above or below the curve. Prolonged hospital stay (≥4 days) was used as a marker for HG severity. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to control for differences in characteristics, laboratory results on admission, and treatment received.

Results: After adjustment, high hCG level adjusted odds ratio (AOR) (2.2, 95% CI 1.0–4.9, p=0.04) and hyponatremia AOR (2.8, 95% CI 1.2–6.6, p=0.02) were independently associated with prolonged hospital stay. With bivariate analysis, high estradiol level was not associated with prolonged stay.

Conclusions: High hCG but not estradiol is associated with more severe HG.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2009;47:165–71.

Keywords: estradiol; hospital stay; human chorionic gonadotropin; hyperemesis gravidarum

About the article

Corresponding author: Peng Chiong Tan, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603 Malaysia Phone: +603-79492059, Fax: +603-79551741, ;

Received: 2008-08-12

Accepted: 2008-10-27

Published in Print: 2009-02-01

Citation Information: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Volume 47, Issue 2, Pages 165–171, ISSN (Online) 1437-4331, ISSN (Print) 1434-6621, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/CCLM.2009.041.

Export Citation

©2009 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin New York.Get Permission

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Sevgi Sari Demir, Hüseyin Çağlayan Özcan, Özcan Balat, Ebru Öztürk, Mete Gurol Uğur, Reyhan Gündüz, and Seyithan Taysi
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2018, Volume 38, Number 4, Page 532
Scott Forbes
Evolution and Human Behavior, 2017, Volume 38, Number 2, Page 265
Peng Chiong Tan, Mat Jin Norazilah, and Siti Zawiah Omar
Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2013, Volume 121, Number 2, PART 1, Page 291
M Ergin, B D Cendek, S Neselioglu, A F Avsar, and O Erel
Journal of Perinatology, 2015, Volume 35, Number 10, Page 788
Maartje N. Niemeijer, Iris J. Grooten, Nikki Vos, Joke M.J. Bais, Joris A. van der Post, Ben W. Mol, Tessa J. Roseboom, Mariska M.G. Leeflang, and Rebecca C. Painter
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2014, Volume 211, Number 2, Page 150.e1
Ragnhild Helseth, Merethe Ravlo, Sven M. Carlsen, and E. Eszter Vanky
European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 2014, Volume 175, Page 167
Ashish Goel, Kapil D. Jamwal, Anup Ramachandran, Kunissery A. Balasubramanian, and Chundamannil E. Eapen
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology, 2014, Volume 4, Number 2, Page 151
Peng Chiong Tan, Anthonia Siaw Jia King, and Siti Zawiah Omar
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, 2012, Volume 38, Number 1, Page 145
Peng C Tan and Siti Z Omar
Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2011, Volume 23, Number 2, Page 87
Peng Chiong Tan, Pwint Phyu Khine, Narayanan Vallikkannu, and Siti Zawiah Omar
Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2010, Volume 115, Number 5, Page 975

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in