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Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM)

Published in Association with the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM)

Editor-in-Chief: Plebani, Mario

Ed. by Gillery, Philippe / Greaves, Ronda / Lackner, Karl J. / Lippi, Giuseppe / Melichar, Bohuslav / Payne, Deborah A. / Schlattmann, Peter

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 3.638

CiteScore 2018: 2.44

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 1.191
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.205

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Volume 48, Issue 6


Rhabdomyolysis: historical background, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic features

Gianfranco Cervellin
  • U.O. Pronto Soccorso e Medicina d'Urgenza, Dipartimento di Emergenza-Urgenza, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma, Parma, Italy
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Ivan Comelli
  • U.O. Pronto Soccorso e Medicina d'Urgenza, Dipartimento di Emergenza-Urgenza, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma, Parma, Italy
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Giuseppe Lippi
  • U.O. Diagnostica Ematochimica, Dipartimento di Patologia e Medicina di Laboratorio, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma, Parma, Italy
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2010-03-19 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/CCLM.2010.151


Rhabdomyolysis, a term used to describe the rapid breakdown of striated muscle, is characterized by rupture and necrosis of muscle fibers. This process results in the release of cell breakdown products into the bloodstream and extracellular space. Although direct muscle injury remains the most common cause of muscle injury, additional causes include hereditary enzyme disorders, drugs, toxins, endocrinopathies, malignant hyperthermia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, heatstroke, hypothermia, electrolyte alterations, diabetic ketoacidosis and non-ketotic hyperosmolar coma, severe hypo- or hyperthyroidism and bacterial or viral infections. The classic triad of symptoms includes muscle pain, weakness and dark urine, although more than 50% of the patients do not complain of muscle pain or weakness. Additional systemic symptoms include fever, general malaise, tachycardia, nausea and vomiting. The laboratory diagnosis is based essentially on the measurement of creatine kinase in serum or plasma. Plasma and urine myoglobin measurement might be useful in the early stages of the syndrome and for identifying a subset of patients with minor skeletal muscle injury. Patient monitoring is pivotal (the mortality rate is as high as 8%), and should be focused on preventing the detrimental consequences, that often include renal disease and coagulopathy. In the pre-hospital setting, forced hydration with 1.5–2 L of sterile saline solution should be started immediately, followed by 1.5–2 L/h. Following hospital admission, continuous hydration should be ensured, alternating the saline solution with a 5% glucose solution. In the presence of myoglobinuria, urine should be alkalinized by use of sodium bicarbonate solution.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2010;48:749–56.

Keywords: creatine kinase; crush injury; crush syndrome; rhabdomyolysis; trauma

About the article

Corresponding author: Prof. Giuseppe Lippi, U.O. Diagnostica Ematochimica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Parma, Via Gramsci 14, 43126 Parma, Italy Phone: +39-0521-703050/54, ;

Received: 2009-11-17

Accepted: 2009-12-04

Published Online: 2010-03-19

Published in Print: 2010-06-01

Citation Information: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Volume 48, Issue 6, Pages 749–756, ISSN (Online) 1437-4331, ISSN (Print) 1434-6621, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/CCLM.2010.151.

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