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Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM)

Published in Association with the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM)

Editor-in-Chief: Plebani, Mario

Ed. by Gillery, Philippe / Greaves, Ronda / Lackner, Karl J. / Lippi, Giuseppe / Melichar, Bohuslav / Payne, Deborah A. / Schlattmann, Peter

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 3.638

CiteScore 2018: 2.44

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 1.191
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.205

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Volume 50, Issue 10


Antioxidant and oligonutrient status, distribution of amino acids, muscle damage, inflammation, and evaluation of renal function in elite rugby players

Anne Marie Gorce-Dupuy / Carlos Vela
  • Department of Sport Medicine, Saint Jean Hospital, Perpignan, France
  • EA 4604, Performances, Santé, Altitude, University of Perpignan, Perpignan, France
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Stéphanie Badiou / Anne Sophie Bargnoux / Christophe Josse / Nicolas Roagna / Martine Delage
  • Biochemistry Laboratory, Lapeyronie Hospital, Montpellier, France
  • Toxicology Laboratory, Lapeyronie Hospital, Montpellier, France
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Françoise Michel / Marie Hélène Vernet / Dominique Destizons / Jean Paul Cristol
Published Online: 2012-04-26 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2012-0109


Background: Our study investigated the biochemical and anthropometric characteristics in elite athletes of rugby union based in the south of France during the different periods of the competition to identify metabolic and biochemical adaptations to particular lifestyle conditions.

Methods: Participants included 35 players in 2008 and 43 players in 2009. Biochemical variables [creatinine, uric acid, creatine kinase (CK), alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, C-reactive protein] were evaluated. Specific protein levels (albumin, acid α-glycoprotein, prealbumin), vitamins (A, E, C), antioxidant enzymes [glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD)], oligoelements (Zn, Se, Cu, erythrocyte magnesium), homocysteine (Hcy), carnitine and the distribution of amino acids were specifically determined for our study during a pre-competition period (September 2008 and 2009).

Results: Globally, no deficit was observed for vitamins, oligonutrients and amino acids levels. The high SOD and GPx activities in rugby players suggest a presence of oxidative stress of exercise. The evaluation of renal function should be used with caution because of the interaction between creatinine and lean body mass. In addition, a profound effect of intense exercise on the CK values was reported to establish specific reference values for athletes. The analysis of the biological variation allows optimization of the interpretation of the changes from an increased or decreased baseline value from a season to the other one.

Conclusions: The conclusions of present study were: 1) the necessity of rugby-specific reference intervals for CK and creatinine parameters; 2) the use of enzymatic creatinine for Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and CKD-EPI, or cystatin C to improve glomerular filtration rate estimation; 3) to take into account the oxidative stress testifying of a bad recovery; and 4) better to take care the nutritional status of the players by adapting needs and amino acids supplementations but also to consider a follow-up of oxidative stress and antioxidants according our results.

Keywords: creatine kinase; creatinine; intensive exercise; oxidative stress; reference values; rugby

About the article

Corresponding author: Jean Paul Cristol, Department of Biochemistry, Lapeyronie Hospital, 371 Avenue du Doyen Gaston Giraud, 34295 Montpellier cédex 5, France Phone: +33 4 67338314, Fax: +33 4 67338393

Received: 2012-02-21

Accepted: 2012-03-27

Published Online: 2012-04-26

Published in Print: 2012-10-01

Citation Information: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Volume 50, Issue 10, Pages 1777–1789, ISSN (Online) 1437-4331, ISSN (Print) 1434-6621, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2012-0109.

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