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Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM)

Published in Association with the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM)

Editor-in-Chief: Plebani, Mario

Ed. by Gillery, Philippe / Greaves, Ronda / Lackner, Karl J. / Lippi, Giuseppe / Melichar, Bohuslav / Payne, Deborah A. / Schlattmann, Peter

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 3.638

CiteScore 2018: 2.44

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 1.191
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.205

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Volume 50, Issue 7


Update on multiple sclerosis, its diagnosis and treatments

Anne H. Cross / Kevin A. Cross / Laura Piccio
Published Online: 2012-03-07 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2011-0736


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a central nervous system disorder, characterized by mononuclear cell inflammation, demyelination and often with extensive axonal injury. It was first described neuropathologically in the late 1800s. MS has an interesting geographical epidemiology, with a higher rate at latitudes further from the equator in both directions. Women outnumber males by about 2:1; this ratio has been increasing in recent years. Genome wide association studies have thus far identified over 50 genetic susceptibility loci, and these are rapidly expanding. Several environmental risk factors have been identified, including low serum vitamin D levels, exposure to Epstein-Barr virus and cigarette smoking. MS displays a heterogeneous disease course; most patients with the disease begin with a relapsing-remitting course, but often eventually develop steady disability progression. A small percentage of MS patients have a progressive course without clinical relapses. Several treatments are now available to decrease relapse rate and slow the accumulation of disability in patients with relapsing MS, but there is currently no effective treatment to slow the progressive forms of MS.

Keywords: autoimmunity; cerebrospinal fluid; magnetic resonance imaging; multiple sclerosis; oligoclonal bands

About the article

Anne H. Cross

Anne H. Cross obtained her MD degree from the University of Alabama. She trained in neurology at the George Washington University, followed by fellowships in neuroimmunology at the US National Institutes of Health and neuropathology at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. In 1990, she was honored with the Harry Weaver Neuroscience Award from the National MS Society. Joining the Neurology faculty at Washington University in 1991, Dr. Cross currently serves as Section Head of Neuroimmunology. Dr. Cross has devoted her career to the study of MS, care of MS patients and training of future clinicians and researcher in the neuroimmunology field. She is the author of over 150 publications, most of which have focused on MS.

Kevin A. Cross

Kevin A. Cross is a student at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, where he is majoring in history and German. During his university years, he worked each summer doing medical research, ranging from animal studies utilizing the animal model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, to advanced imaging studies to quantitate MRI in MS. He plans to attend medical school in the future.

Laura Piccio

Laura Piccio obtained her MD and PhD degrees from the University of Milan, Italy where she trained as a neurologist. In 2005 she received a post-doctoral fellowship from the National Multiple Sclerosis Society (NMSS) under the mentorship of Dr. Anne Cross at Washington University. In 2008, she joined the faculty of the Neuroimmunology Section of the Department of Neurology at Washington University. She was awarded the prestigious Harry Weaver Neuroscience Award from the NMSS in 2010. At present, her research interests are focused on the role of innate immunity in MS, and the interplay between metabolic and immune pathways in MS and its animal model.

Corresponding author: Anne H. Cross, MD, Professor of Neurology, Department of Neurology, McMillan Building 310, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA Phone: +1 314 747-0405, Fax: +1 314 747-1345

Received: 2011-10-10

Accepted: 2012-01-12

Published Online: 2012-03-07

Published in Print: 2012-07-01

Citation Information: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Volume 50, Issue 7, Pages 1203–1210, ISSN (Online) 1437-4331, ISSN (Print) 1434-6621, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2011-0736.

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