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Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM)

Published in Association with the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM)

Editor-in-Chief: Plebani, Mario

Ed. by Gillery, Philippe / Greaves, Ronda / Lackner, Karl J. / Lippi, Giuseppe / Melichar, Bohuslav / Payne, Deborah A. / Schlattmann, Peter

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 3.638

CiteScore 2018: 2.44

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 1.191
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.205

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Volume 50, Issue 9


Neurophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as a new biomarker in laboratory medicine

Konstantinos Makris / Demetrios Rizos
  • Hormone Laboratory, 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, University of Athens, “Aretaieio” Hospital, Athens, Greece
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Nikolaos Kafkas / Alexander Haliassos
Published Online: 2012-07-09 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2012-0227


Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a 25 kDa protein of the lipocalin superfamily. This protein is expressed and secreted by immune cells, hepatocytes, and renal tubular cells in various pathologic states. NGAL has recently generated great interest as an early biomarker of renal injury. However, like many other endogenous biomarkers it is not produced by just one cell type and it exists in more than one molecular form. As recent research has shown different pathological conditions may involved in the production of this molecule. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the biology of NGAL and examines the role of this molecule of acute renal injury as well as in other pathologic conditions like neoplasia, anemia, pregnancy, cardiovascular disease chronic kidney disease and in cardiorenal syndrome. Commercial and research immunoassays are used to measure NGAL in both plasma and urine but these assays are not standardized. The existence of different molecular forms of NGAL and their expression at various disease states further complicates the interpretation of the results. Pre analytical issues and biological variation are also not fully elucidated.

Keywords: biomarkers; kidney injury; lipocalin 2; neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL); siderocalin

About the article

Konstantinos Makris

Konstantinos Makris, PhD, EurClinChem, graduated in Biology from Aristotelion University of Thessaloniki, Greece in 1981. From 1985 to 2002 he worked in the blood transfusion service of the KAT General Hospital in Athens, Greece. In 1996, he gained his PhD in laboratory hematology and transfusion medicine from the Medical School of the University of Patras, Greece, with a research project on transfusion transmitted hepatitis. From 2002 he worked in the Clinical Biochemistry Department of KAT General Hospital in Athens, Greece. He has been a member of the European Registry of Clinical Biochemists since 2003. His main research interests include biomarkers for cardiovascular, renal and metabolic diseases. He has several publication in the fields of clinical biochemistry and transfusion medicine and is also a reviewer for Clinical Chemistry, JACC, and Journal of Translational Medicine.

Demetrios Rizos

Demetrios A. Rizos, Assistant Professor of Clinical Chemistry, 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, University of Athens, Greece. He is the Scientific Director of the “Hormone” Laboratory, “Aretaieio” Hospital. He has been the President of the Greek Society of Clinical Chemistry-Clinical Biochemistry and is currently the President of the Greek National Clinical Chemistry Registration Committee. He is author of 103 published papers in peer reviewed journals with more than 800 total citations.

Nikolaos Kafkas

Nikolaos Kafkas, MD, PhD, FESC, graduated in medicine from University of Athens Greece in 1987. In 1997, he specialized in Cardiology at G. Genimatas General Hospital of Athens and in 2006 he specialized in interventional cardiology at Onaseion Cardiac Surgery Center of Athens, Greece. Currently he is working as a staff member of the Cardiology Department at KAT General Hospital in Athens, Greece. In 2008, he gained his PhD in Cardiology from the Medical School of the University of Athens, Greece, with a research project on the role of procalcitonin in coronary artery disease. He currently is the head of the intervention cardiology laboratory of the KAT general hospital. He has published several articles in peer review journals and presented in international congresses.

Alexander Haliassos

Alexander Haliassos studied medicine at the National University of Athens (UoA), Greece. He continued his studies on electronics applied in the medical field and in human genetics at the Medical School of Claude Bernard University, Lyon, France. After his 2 years service as a Medical Doctor in the Greek Air Force he continued his studies as Post-doctoral fellow at the “Institut de Pathologie Moléculaire” of René Descartes University, Paris V, France where was trained in the new techniques of Molecular Biology. He obtained his PhD diploma on 1989 at the Medical School (UoA). From 1991 to 1993 he was Medical Doctor-Research fellow at the National Research Foundation, Institute for Biological Research and Biotechnology in Athens. He organized and directed subsequently the core laboratories (including the Blood Bank) of the Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, the Athens Euroclinic and the Metropolitan Hospital at Athens. He obtained the title of European Clinical Chemist (EurClinChem) in 2003. He published more than 40 papers in peer-reviewed scientific journals, made more than 70 oral presentations and participated in 110 posters in international meetings.

Corresponding author: Dr. Alexander Haliassos, Central Laboratories, Diamedica S.A., 1 Xenias Street, 115 27, Athens, Greece Phone: +30 694 4373473

Received: 2012-04-09

Accepted: 2012-05-29

Published Online: 2012-07-09

Published in Print: 2012-09-01

Citation Information: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM), Volume 50, Issue 9, Pages 1519–1532, ISSN (Online) 1437-4331, ISSN (Print) 1434-6621, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2012-0227.

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