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Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM)

Published in Association with the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM)

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Coffee consumption, serum γ-glutamyltransferase, and glucose tolerance status in middle-aged Japanese men

1 / Osamu Tajima1, 4 / Kousaku Uezono1, 4 / Shinji Tabata2 / Hiroshi Abe2 / Keizo Ohnaka3 / Suminori Kono1

1Department of Preventive Medicine, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan

2Self-Defense Forces Fukuoka Hospital, Kasuga-shi, Japan

3Department of Geriatric Medicine, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan

4Self-Defense Forces Kumamoto Hospital, Kumamoto, Japan

Corresponding author: Tatsuo Hiramatsu, MD, Department of Preventive Medicine, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3–1–1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812–8582, Japan, Phone: +81 92 6426110, Fax: +81 92 6426115

Citation Information: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. Volume 51, Issue 6, Pages 1233–1239, ISSN (Online) 1437-4331, ISSN (Print) 1434-6621, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2012-0700, December 2012

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Background: Recently, coffee consumption has been related to decreased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) among those with high levels of serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT). We examined the association between coffee and glucose tolerance, determined by a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, and the effect modification of serum GGT on the association.

Methods: The study subjects were 5320 men aged 46–60 years who received a health examination at two Self-Defense Forces hospitals from January 1997 to March 2004. Those medicated for DM were excluded. Coffee consumption was classified into <1, 1–2, 3–4, and ≥5 cups/day. Statistical adjustment was made for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, leisure-time physical activity, green tea consumption, parental diabetes, hospital, and rank in the Self-Defense Forces.

Results: Men with normal glucose tolerance, isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), combined IFG/IGT, and type 2 DM numbered 3384, 398, 790, 348, and 400, respectively. The prevalence odds of isolated IGT, combined IFG/IGT, and type 2 DM, but not of isolated IFG, decreased with increasing consumption of coffee. An inverse association with coffee was observed for isolated IGT in both low (≤40 IU/L) and high (>40 IU/L) GGT groups, and for combined IFG/IGT and type 2 DM in the latter group.

Conclusions: Coffee drinking is protective against glucose intolerance. A possible effect modification of GGT on the coffee-DM association warrants further studies.

Keywords: coffee; diabetes mellitus, type 2; glucose intolerance; glucose tolerance test; γ-glutamyltransferase

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