Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM)

Published in Association with the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM)

Editor-in-Chief: Plebani, Mario

Ed. by Gillery, Philippe / Greaves, Ronda / Lackner, Karl J. / Lippi, Giuseppe / Melichar, Bohuslav / Payne, Deborah A. / Schlattmann, Peter


IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 3.638

CiteScore 2018: 2.44

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 1.191
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.205

Online
ISSN
1437-4331
See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 53, Issue 9

Issues

Relevance of correction for drift and day-to-day variation in cystatin C measurement: a post-hoc analysis of the PREVEND cohort, with independent replication in the ESTHER cohort

Priya Vart
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Health Sciences, Community and Occupational Medicine, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Stephan J. L. Bakker
  • Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Groningen Groningen, The Netherlands
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Ben Schöttker
  • Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Dick de Zeeuw
  • Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Dietrich Rothenbacher / Hermann Brenner
  • Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Hiddo J. Lambers Heerspink
  • Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Kai-Uwe Saum
  • Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Sijmen A. Reijneveld
  • Department of Health Sciences, Community and Occupational Medicine, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Ute Bültmann
  • Department of Health Sciences, Community and Occupational Medicine, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Wolfgang Koenig / Ron T. Gansevoort
  • Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Groningen Groningen, The Netherlands
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2014-11-21 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2014-0894

Abstract

Background: Despite standard laboratory quality control, drift and day-to-day variability in cystatin C measurements can be observed. We investigated whether correction for drift and day-to-day variation in cystatin C measurements improves the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk factors and prognosis.

Methods: Plasma samples of the PREVEND study (Dutch cohort study, n=8592) were used to measure cystatin C (Gentian assay) on 243 random days. A correction factor was calculated for each measurement day. GFR was estimated with CKD-EPI equation using routinely measured cystatin C (eGFRcysC) and corrected cystatin C (eGFRcysC corr). Participants were categorized in six categories of eGFRcysC and eGFRcysC corr: ≥120, 90–119, 75–89, 60–74, 45–59 and <45 mL/min/1.73m2. Independent replication was performed in the ESTHER study (German cohort study, n=9949).

Results: Compared to non-reclassified participants, participants re-classified upward had significantly lower age, body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol, glucose and albuminuria, whereas the opposite was true for participants reclassified downward. CKD risk factors explained more variance in eGFRcysC corr than in eGFRcysC (p<0.001). Compared to non-reclassified participants, risk of incident cardiovascular events (n=789, follow-up 9.3±2.7 years) tended to be higher in downward reclassified and lower in upward reclassified participants. Net reclassification improvement for incident cardiovascular events using eGFRcysC corr was positive (0.102, p=0.019). The ESTHER study showed similar results.

Conclusions: Correction for drift and day-to-day variation in cystatin C measurement improves eGFR using cystatin C for its association with CKD risk factors and incident cardiovascular events.

This article offers supplementary material which is provided at the end of the article.

Keywords: correction; cystatin C; drift; estimated glomerular filtration rate

References

  • 1.

    Hallan SI, Matsushita K, Sang Y, Mahmoodi BK, Black C, Ishani A, et al. Chronic kidney disease prognosis consortium. Age and association of kidney measures with mortality and end-stage renal disease. J Am Med Assoc 2012;308:2349–60.Google Scholar

  • 2.

    Tonelli M, Wiebe N, Culleton B, House A, Rabbat C, Fok M, et al. Chronic kidney disease and mortality risk: a systematic review. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006;17:2034–47.Google Scholar

  • 3.

    Go AS, Chertow GM, Fan D, McCulloch CE, Hsu CY. Chronic kidney disease and the risks of death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization. N Engl J Med 2004;351:1296–305.Google Scholar

  • 4.

    Stevens LA, Coresh J, Greene T, Levey AS. Assessing kidney function – measured and estimated glomerular filtration rate. N Engl J Med 2006;354:2473–83.Google Scholar

  • 5.

    Levey AS, Stevens LA, Schmid CH, Zhang YL, Castro AF 3rd, Feldman HI, et al. A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med 2009;150:604–12.Google Scholar

  • 6.

    Inker LA, Schmid CH, Tighiouart H, Eckfeldt JH, Feldman HI, Greene T, et al. Estimating glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine and cystatin C. N Engl J Med 2012;367:20–9.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 7.

    Peralta CA, Shlipak MG, Judd S, Cushman M, McClellan W, Zakai NA, et al. Detection of chronic kidney disease with creatinine, cystatin C, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and association with progression to end-stage renal disease and mortality. J Am Med Assoc 2011;305:1545–52.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 8.

    Shlipak MG, Sarnak MJ, Katz R, Fried LF, Seliger SL, Newman AB, et al. Cystatin C and the risk of death and cardiovascular events among elderly persons. N Engl J Med 2005;352:2049–60.Google Scholar

  • 9.

    Website: Kidney International Supplements. KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for the Evaluation and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease. Available from: http://www.kdigo.org/clinical_practice_guidelines/pdf/CKD/KDIGO_2012_CKD_GL.pdf. Accessed 30 September, 2014.Web of Science

  • 10.

    Astor BC, Levey AS, Stevens LA, Van Lente F, Selvin E, Coresh J. Method of glomerular filtration rate estimation affects prediction of mortality risk. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009;20:2214–22.Google Scholar

  • 11.

    Grubb A, Blirup-Jensen S, Lindström V, Schmidt C, Althaus H, Zegers I, et al. First certified reference material for cystatin C in human serum ERM-DA471/IFCC. Clin Chem Lab Med 2010;48:1619–21.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 12.

    Inker LA, Eckfeldt J, Levey AS, Leiendecker-Foster C, Rynders G, Manzi J, et al. Expressing the CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) cystatin C equations for estimating GFR with standardized serum cystatin C values. Am J Kidney Dis 2011;58:682–4.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 13.

    Mahmoodi BK, Gansevoort RT, Veeger NJ, Matthews AG, Navis G, Hillege HL, et al. Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease (PREVEND) Study Group. Microalbuminuria and risk of venous thromboembolism. J Am Med Assoc 2009;301:1790–7.Google Scholar

  • 14.

    Hillege HL, Fidler V, Diercks GF, van Gilst WH, de Zeeuw D, van Veldhuisen DJ, et al. Prevention of Renal and Vascular End Stage Disease (PREVEND) Study Group. Urinary albumin excretion predicts cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality in general population. Circulation 2002;106:1777–82.Google Scholar

  • 15.

    Edwards LJ, Muller KE, Wolfinger RD, Qaqish BF, Schabenberger O. An R2 statistic for fixed effects in the linear mixed model. Stat Med 2008;27:6137–57.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 16.

    Pencina MJ, D’Agostino RB, D’Agostino RB, Vasan RS. Evaluating the added predictive ability of a new marker: from area under the ROC curve to reclassification and beyond. Stat Med 2008;27:157–72.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 17.

    Zhang QL, Koenig W, Raum E, Stegmaier C, Brenner H, Rothenbacher D. Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease: results from a population of older adults in Germany. Prev Med 2009;48:122–7.Google Scholar

  • 18.

    Perrone RD, Madias NE, Levey AS. Serum creatinine as an index of renal function: new insights into old concepts. Clin Chem 1992;38:1933–53.Google Scholar

  • 19.

    Naresh CN, Hayen A, Weening A, Craig JC, Chadban SJ. Day-to-day variability in spot urine albumin-creatinine ratio. Am J Kidney Dis 2013;62:1095–101.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 20.

    Reinhard M, Erlandsen EJ, Randers E. Biological variation of cystatin C and creatinine. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2009;69:831–6.Google Scholar

About the article

Corresponding author: Priya Vart, Antonius Deusinglaan 1, Postbus 196, 9700 AD, Groningen, The Netherlands, Phone: +31 50 3633110/+31 50 3636251, E-mail: ; and Department of Health Sciences, Community and Occupational Medicine, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands


Received: 2014-09-09

Accepted: 2014-10-19

Published Online: 2014-11-21

Published in Print: 2015-08-01


Citation Information: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM), Volume 53, Issue 9, Pages 1381–1390, ISSN (Online) 1437-4331, ISSN (Print) 1434-6621, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2014-0894.

Export Citation

©2015 by De Gruyter.Get Permission

Supplementary Article Materials

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

[1]
Gerrie-Cor M. Herber-Gast, Marijke Boersma, W. M. Monique Verschuren, Coen D. A. Stehouwer, Ron T. Gansevoort, Stephan J. L. Bakker, and Annemieke M. W. Spijkerman
British Journal of Nutrition, 2017, Volume 118, Number 5, Page 375
[2]
Gerrie-Cor M Herber-Gast, Sander Biesbroek, WM Monique Verschuren, Coen DA Stehouwer, Ron T Gansevoort, Stephan JL Bakker, and Annemieke MW Spijkerman
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2016, Volume 104, Number 6, Page 1712
[3]
Akin Özyilmaz, Paul E. de Jong, Stephan J.L. Bakker, Sipke T. Visser, Chris Thio, and Ron T. Gansevoort
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 2016, Page gfw414
[4]
Priya Vart and Morgan E. Grams
Seminars in Nephrology, 2016, Volume 36, Number 4, Page 262

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in