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Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM)

Published in Association with the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM)

Editor-in-Chief: Plebani, Mario

Ed. by Gillery, Philippe / Greaves, Ronda / Lackner, Karl J. / Lippi, Giuseppe / Melichar, Bohuslav / Payne, Deborah A. / Schlattmann, Peter


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 3.556

CiteScore 2018: 2.44

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 1.191
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.205

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1437-4331
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Volume 56, Issue 7

Issues

Laboratory hemostasis: from biology to the bench

Giuseppe LippiORCID iD: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9523-9054 / Emmanuel J. Favaloro
  • Department of Clinical and Laboratory Haematology, Sydney Centres for Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Institute of Clinical Pathology and Medical Research and Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW, Australia
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2018-02-19 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2017-1205

Abstract

Physiological hemostasis is an intricate biological system, where procoagulant and anticoagulant forces interplay and preserves blood fluidity when blood vessels are intact, or trigger clot formation to prevent excessive bleeding when blood vessels are injured. The modern model of hemostasis is divided into two principal phases. The first, defined as primary hemostasis, involves the platelet-vessel interplay, whilst the second, defined as secondary hemostasis, mainly involves coagulation factors, damaged cells and platelet surfaces, where the so-called coagulation cascade rapidly develops. The activation and amplification of the coagulation cascade is finely modulated by the activity of several physiological inhibitors. Once bleeding has been efficiently stopped by blood clot formation, dissolution of the thrombus is essential to restore vessel permeability. This process, known as fibrinolysis, also develops through coordinate action of a vast array of proteins and enzymes. An accurate diagnosis of hemostasis disturbance entails a multifaceted approach, encompassing family and personal history of hemostatic disorders, accurate collection of clinical signs and symptoms, integrated with laboratory hemostasis testing. Regarding laboratory testing, a reasonable approach entails classifying hemostasis testing according to cost, complexity and available clinical information. Laboratory workout may hence initiate with some rapid and inexpensive “screening” tests, characterized by high negative predictive value, then followed by second- or third-line analyses, specifically aimed to clarify the nature and severity of bleeding or thrombotic phenotype. This article aims to provide a general overview of the hemostatic process, and to provide some general suggestions to optimally facilitate laboratory hemostasis testing.

Keywords: bleeding; blood coagulation; laboratory hemostasis; platelets; thrombosis

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About the article

Corresponding author: Prof. Giuseppe Lippi, Section of Clinical Biochemistry, University Hospital of Verona, Piazzale LA Scuro, 37100 – Verona, Italy, E-mail: ulippi@tin.it


Received: 2017-12-24

Accepted: 2018-01-19

Published Online: 2018-02-19

Published in Print: 2018-06-27


Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Research funding: None declared.

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.


Citation Information: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM), Volume 56, Issue 7, Pages 1035–1045, ISSN (Online) 1437-4331, ISSN (Print) 1434-6621, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2017-1205.

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