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Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering

Joint Journal of the German Society for Biomedical Engineering in VDE and the Austrian and Swiss Societies for Biomedical Engineering

Editor-in-Chief: Dössel, Olaf

Editorial Board: Augat, Peter / Buzug, Thorsten M. / Haueisen, Jens / Jockenhoevel, Stefan / Knaup-Gregori, Petra / Kraft, Marc / Lenarz, Thomas / Leonhardt, Steffen / Malberg, Hagen / Penzel, Thomas / Plank, Gernot / Radermacher, Klaus M. / Schkommodau, Erik / Stieglitz, Thomas / Urban, Gerald A.

CiteScore 2018: 0.47

Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.377

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Experimental validation of a bias in apparent exchange rate measurement

Patricia Ulloa
  • Corresponding author
  • Institute of Medical Engineering. University of Luebeck. Ratzeburger Allee 160. 23562 Luebeck, Germany
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/ Vincent Methot / Martin A. Koch
Published Online: 2017-09-07 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/cdbme-2017-0112


Double diffusion encoding (DDE) MRI is a technique in which two diffusion weighted periods are applied between excitation and acquisition. This allows to acquire structural information (as pore size and shape) and molecular exchange between compartments, in terms of apparent exchange rate (AXR). However, it has not been well investigated yet whether the diffusion restriction underlying DDE size estimation may compromise AXR results.

Numerical simulations for impermeable spheres have shown that in case of small pores (diameter < 10 μm) the restriction effect may be neglected. Yet, for larger pores, the restriction effect can be relevant and needs to be considered in the analysis of experiments.

Here, we present experiments performed on a 3 T clinical MRI system using a water-in-oil emulsion in which no exchange between compartments is expected. The results show that a nonzero apparent exchange rate may be estimated in a sample with impermeable pores. This shows that, as predicted in simulations, the restriction effect affects the AXR results. The use of perpendicular diffusion gradients may be a solution for this problem in isotropic samples.

Keywords: Double diffusion encoding (DDE); apparent exchange rate; water-in-oil emulsion

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Published Online: 2017-09-07

Citation Information: Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 529–532, ISSN (Online) 2364-5504, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/cdbme-2017-0112.

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©2017 Patricia Ulloa et al., published by De Gruyter. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. BY-NC-ND 4.0

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