Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a powerful tool to extent knowledge of biomechanical processes in cardiovascular implants.
To provide a standardized method the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) initialized a CFD round robin study. One of the developed benchmark standard models is a generic nozzle geometry, consisting of a cylindrical throat with a conical collector and sudden expansion on either side. Several fluid mechanical data obtained from international institutes by means of CFD and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements under different flow regimes (Re = 500, 2000, 3500, 5000 and 6500) are freely available.
This database includes only steady state simulations. In this study we performed pulsatile CFD simulations to consider the physiological environment of the coronary vessels. Furthermore, the nozzle geometry was scaled down to coronary dimension (Dinlet = 12 mm to 3 mm) while retaining the average Reynolds number Re = 500 constant. The pulsatile character is described by a Womersley number of Wo = 2.065. Our CFD code was previously validated by using FDA’s data for steady state inflow conditions.
It could be shown that time averaged wall shear stress and shear stress values agree well with steady state results. We conclude that steady state simulations are valid for hemodynamic analyses if only time averaged values are needed. This could save computational costs of future hemodynamic investigations.
In addition, this study expands FDA’s benchmark case by pulsatile inlet condition for further code validation. This could be necessary for the development of new numerical methods as well as for validation of CFD codes used in the approval process of medical devices.