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Differentiation of two types of cultural remains of the Eastern Zhou Period in North China: on the relationships among the Rong, Di and the Hu
In the Spring-and-Autumn and Warring-States Periods, North China went through remarkable changes in material culture, economic type, social formation and ethnographic aspect and entered a period of great prosperity. Were the main ethnic groups in this cultural zone concerned with the “Rong”, “Di” and “Hu” recorded in ancient Chinese documents? What difference existed between them? How was the replacement of the Rong and Di by the Hu reflected in material culture? The present paper tries to answer these questions through an integrated study of related archaeological data and literal evidence. Based on a typological and morphological examination of northern bronzes and related artifacts, the available cultural remains can be classified into two types. The two types of remains are varying chronologically and reflect distinct difference in material culture, ethnographic aspect and economic life.