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Open Chemistry

formerly Central European Journal of Chemistry

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Volume 5, Issue 1


Volume 13 (2015)

The solvent extraction and spectrophotometric determination of vanadium (V) with 4-(2-thiazolylazo)resorcinol and tetrazolium salts

Kiril Gavazov / Vanya Lekova / Atanas Dimitrov / Georgi Patronov
Published Online: 2007-03-01 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11532-006-0053-x


The formation and extraction of ion-associate complexes between the vanadium(V)-4-(2-thiazolylazo)resorcinol (TAR) anionic chelate and the cations of some mono-and ditetrazolium salts {3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazol)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (Thiazolyl blue, MTT), 3-(2-naphtyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (Tetrazolium violet), 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (Iodonitrotetrazolium chloride), 3,3′-[3,3′-dimetoxy(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diyl]-bis[2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium] chloride (Tetrazolium blue chloride) and 3,3′-(3,3′-dimetoxy-4,4′-biphenylene)bis[2-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride] (Nitro blue tetrazolium chloride)} have been studied. The optimum extraction conditions have been found. The composition of the V-TAR-monotetrazolium and V-TAR-ditetrazolium complexes extracted into chloroform has been determined to be 1:2:3 and 2:4:3 respectively. The extraction, distribution and association constants, and the recovery factors have been calculated. The relationship between the molecular weight of tetrazolium cations, and the association constants of their complexes has been discussed. The special behavior of the tetrazolium cations, containing-NO2 groups has been noticed. The effects of foreign ions and reagents on the extraction of vanadium with TAR and the best tetrazolium salt-MTT have been studied. A sensitive, selective, simple and fast method for the determination of vanadium has been developed.

Keywords: Vanadium; 4-(2-Thazolylazo)resorcinol; tetrazolium salts; extractive spectrophotometric determination

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About the article

Published Online: 2007-03-01

Published in Print: 2007-03-01

Citation Information: Open Chemistry, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 257–270, ISSN (Online) 2391-5420, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11532-006-0053-x.

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© 2005 Versita Warsaw. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

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