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Volume 11, Issue 6 (Jun 2013)


Preparation of low initial expansion temperature expandable graphite and its flame retardancy for LLDPE

Xiuyan Pang
  • College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Baoding, 071002, People’ Republic of China
  • Email:
/ Yu Tian
  • College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Baoding, 071002, People’ Republic of China
  • Email:
/ Mingwei Duan
  • College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Baoding, 071002, People’ Republic of China
  • Email:
/ Meng Zhai
  • College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Baoding, 071002, People’ Republic of China
  • Email:
Published Online: 2013-03-28 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11532-013-0227-2


To get expandable graphite (EG) flame retardant for Liner Low-Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) with low initial expansion temperature and high dilatability, the effects of various factors on dilatability were investigated including the dosages of oxidant KMnO4, intercalating reagent H2SO4, assistant intercalating reagent acetic acid (HAc) and reaction temperature. Feasible conditions were obtained according to the results of L9 (34) experiments and single factor experiments. EG with an initial expansion temperature of 160°C and expansion volume of 460 mL g−1 could be prepared according to the mass ratio of material graphite C: KMnO4: 100% H2SO4: HAc = 1.0: 0.4: 5.0: 1.0 (H2SO4 should be diluted to the mass concentration of 75% before the intercalation reaction); the reaction time was 1.0 hour at 25°C. It was found that reaction temperature and H2SO4 dosage were the most important influence factors for dilatability. The limiting oxygen index could be improved to 28.1% by adding 30% of the prepared EG to LLDPE, and the synergistic anti-flame capability of 20% EG with 10% Ammonium polyphosphate (APP) (I) can reach to 33.9%. According to thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis results, 70% LLDPE /10% APP (I) /20% EG synergistic anti-flame system shows higher residual carbon and thermal stability.

Keywords: Expandable graphite; Acetic acid; Initial expansion temperature; Expansion volume; Flame retardant

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About the article

Published Online: 2013-03-28

Published in Print: 2013-06-01

Citation Information: Open Chemistry, ISSN (Online) 2391-5420, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11532-013-0227-2.

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