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Open Chemistry

formerly Central European Journal of Chemistry

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Volume 13, Issue 1


Volume 13 (2015)

Struvite recovery from solution containing phosphate(V) and sulphate(VI) ions

Nina Hutnik
  • Corresponding author
  • Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, 50–370 Wroclaw, Poland
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Anna Kozik / Krzysztof Piotrowski
  • Department of Chemical Engineering and Process Design, Silesian University of Technology, 44–101 Gliwice, Poland
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Andrzej Matynia
Published Online: 2015-07-06 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/chem-2015-0120


The research results concerning the application of magnesium and ammonium ions for continuous removal of phosphate(V) ions from solution containing 1.0 or 0.20 mass% of PO43– and from 0.10 to 0.50 mass% of SO42– are presented. A continuous struvite MgNH4PO4 × 6H2O reaction crystallization process was carried out both under stoichiometric conditions and using 20% excess of magnesium ions. The research was conducted in a DT MSMPR type crystallizer with internal circulation of suspension driven by a propeller stirrer, in constant temperature 298 K. The pH varied from 9 to 11 and mean residence time of suspension in a crystallizer τ varied from 900 to 3600 s. It was concluded, that sulphate(VI) ions influenced product quality disadvantageously. Depending on process parameter combinations struvite crystals of mean size from ca. 18 to ca. 44 μm and of moderate homogeneity: CV 7–95% were produced. Presence of sulphate(VI) ions favored crystallization of struvite as prismatic crystals, but tubular forms were also identified. The best shaped struvite crystals were produced at relatively low concentration of sulphate(VI) ions, pH 9 and for mean residence time of suspension in a crystallizer elongated up to 3600 s.

Keywords : struvite; phosphate(V) ions; sulphate(VI) ions; continuous reaction crystallization; crystal product quality


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About the article

Received: 2015-01-29

Accepted: 2015-05-15

Published Online: 2015-07-06

Citation Information: Open Chemistry, Volume 13, Issue 1, ISSN (Online) 2391-5420, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/chem-2015-0120.

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© 2015 Nina Hutnik et al.. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. BY-NC-ND 3.0

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