Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Acta Chirurgica Latviensis

The Journal of Riga Stradins University; Latvian Association of Surgeons; Latvian Association of Paediatric Surgeons

2 Issues per year

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Renal Cell Carcinoma – How Can We Predict its Outcomes in Clinical Practice?

Ieva Vaivode / Vilnis Lietuvietis / Alinta Hegmane / Iveta Kudaba
Published Online: 2013-09-05 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/chilat-2013-0012


Morbidity and mortality data of RCC (renal cell carcinoma) differs a lot among the European countries. In Latvia a growing trend in both incidence and mortality rates is still observed. The expanding availability of multiple treatment strategies has increased the importance of skilled individualized outcome prediction for patients. Several prognostic factors are available in RCC including anatomical, histological, clinical and molecular ones, but none of them is very precise, when used alone. Therefore increasing number of prognostic systems has been created in local and metastatic disease to increase predictive accuracy. In order to encourage the clinicians to use the available models in their routine practice, we tried to select the most relevant ones and include them in a simple algorithm to be used in common clinical scenarios throughout entire history of the disease in patients with RCC

Keywords : renal cell carcinoma; prognostic factors; prognostic models

  • 1. Bedke J, Buse S, Pritsch M, et al. Perinephric and renal sinus fat infiltration in pT3a renal cell carcinoma: possible prognostic differences // BJU International, 2009; 103(10):1349-1354CrossrefWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 2. Cheville JC, Lohse CM, Zincke H, et al. Comparisons of outcome and prognostic features among histologic subtypes of renal cell carcinoma // Am J Surg Pathol, 2003; 27:612-624CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 3. Choueiri TK, Garcia JA, Elson P, et al. Clinical factors associated with outcome in patients with metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma treated with vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted therapy // Cancer, 2007; 110:543-550PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 4. Culp SH, Tannir NM, Abel EJ, et al. Can we better select patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma for cytoreductive nephrectomy? // Cancer, 2010; 116:3378-3388PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 5. de Reijke TM, Bellmunt J, van Poppel H, et al. EORTC-GU group expert opinion on metastatic renal cell cancer // Eur J Cancer, 2009; 45:765-773PubMedWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 6. Eggener SE, Yossepowitch O, Pettus JA, et al. Renal cell carcinoma recurrence after nephrectomy for localized disease: predicting survival from time of recurrence // J Clin Oncol, 2006; 24(19):3101-3106PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 7. Elson PJ, Witte RS, Trump DL. Prognostic factors for survival in patients with recurrent or metastatic renal cell carcinoma // Cancer Res, 1988; 48:7310-7313PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 8. Escudier B, Choueiri TK, Oudard S, et al. Prognostic factors of metastatic renal cell carcinoma after failure of immunotherapy: new paradigm from a large phase III trial with shark cartilage extract AE 941 // J Urol, 2007; 178:1901-1905Google Scholar

  • 9. Escudier B, Kataja V; ESMO Guidelines Working Group. Renal cell carcinoma: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up // Ann Oncol, 2010; 21(5):137-139CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 10. European Cancer Observatory (ECO) // eco.iarc.frGoogle Scholar

  • 11. Finley DS, Pantuck AJ, Belldegrun AS. Tumor biology and prognostic factors in renal cell carcinoma // Oncologist, 2011; 16(2):4-13CrossrefWeb of SciencePubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 12. Flanigan RC, Salmon SE, Blumenstain BA, et al. Nephrectomy followed by interferon alfa-2b compared with interferon alfa-2b alone for metastatic renal-cell cancer // N Engl J Med, 2001; 345:1655Google Scholar

  • 13. Frank I, Blute ML, Cheville JC, et al. An outcome prediction model for patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma treated with radical nephrectomy based on tumor stage, size, grade and necrosis: the SSIGN score // J Urol, 2002; 168:2395-2400Google Scholar

  • 14. Heng DY, Xie W, Regan MM, et al. Prognostic factors for overall survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted agents: results from a large, multicenter study // J Clin Oncol, 2009; 27:5794PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 15. Hudes G, Carducci M, Tomczk P, et al. Temsirolimus, interferon alfa, or both for advanced renal‐cell carcinoma // N Engl J Med, 2007; 356, 2271-2281Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 16. Ii mura Y, Saito K, Fujii Y, et al. Development and external validation of a new outcome prediction model for patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma treated with nephrectomy based on preoperative serum C-reactive protein and TNM classification: the TNM-C score // J Urol, 2009; 181(3):1004-1012Google Scholar

  • 17. Is barn H, Karakiewicz PI. Predicting cancer-control outcomes in patients with renal cell carcinoma // Curr Opin Urol, 2009; 19(3):247-257Google Scholar

  • 18. Je ldres C, Karakiewicz PI, Suardi N, et al. Conditional survival predictions after nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma // J Urol, 2009; 182(6):2607-2612Google Scholar

  • 19. Je ppesen AN, Jensen HK, Donskov F, et al. Hyponatremia as a prognostic and predictive factor in metastatic renal cell carcinoma // Br J Cancer, 2010; 102:867Google Scholar

  • 20. Ka volius JP, Mastorakos DP, Pavlovich C, et al. Resection of metastatic renal cell carcinoma // J Clin Oncol, 1998; 16:2261-2266Google Scholar

  • 21. Ki m HL, Belldegrun AS, Freitas DG, et al. A Paraneoplastic signs and symptoms of renal cell carcinoma: implications for prognosis // J Urol, 2003; 170:1742-1746Google Scholar

  • 22. Kim HL, Seligson D, Liu X, et al. Using tumor markers to predict the survival of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma // J Urol, 2005; 173(5):1496-1501PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 23. Kuti kov A, Egleston BL, et al. Evaluating overall survival and competing risks of death in patients with localized renal cell carcinoma using a comprehensive nomogram // J Clin Oncol, 2010; 28(2):311-317Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 24. Kuti kov A, Smaldone MC, Egleston, et al. Anatomic features of enhancing renal masses predict malignant and high-grade pathology: a preoperative nomogram using the RENAL Nephrometry score // Eur Urol, 2011; 60(2):241-248Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 25. Lee CT, Katz J, Fearn PA, et al. Mode of presentation of renal cell carcinoma provides prognostic information // Urol Oncol, 2002; 7:135-140PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 26. Lee LS, Tan MH. Predictive models for the practical management of renal cell carcinoma// Nat Rev Urol, 2012; 9(2):73-84PubMedWeb of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 27. Leib ovich BC, Cheville JC, Lohse CM, et al. A scoring algorithm to predict survival for patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma: a stratification tool for prospective clinical trials // J Urol, 2005; 174:1759-176328. Ljun gberg B, Cowan NC B, Cowan NC, et al. EAU guidelines on renal cell carcinoma: the 2010 update // Eur Urol, 2010; 58:398-406Google Scholar

  • 29. Mano la J, Royston P, Elson P, et al. Prognostic model for survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: results from the international kidney cancer working group // Clin Cancer Res, 2011; 17(16):5443-5450Google Scholar

  • 30. Moch H, Gasser T, Amin MB, et al. Prognostic utility of the recently recommended histologic classification and revised TNM staging system of renal cell carcinoma: a Swiss experience with 588 tumors // Cancer, 2000; 89:604-614PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 31. Motz er RJ, Agarwal N, Beard C, et al. NCCN clinical practice guidelines in oncology: kidney cancer. Version 2.2012 // J Natl Compr Canc Netw, 2009; 7:618-30Google Scholar

  • 32. Motz er RJ, Bacik J, Mazumdar M. Prognostic factors for survival of patients with stage IV renal cell carcinoma: Memorial Sloan - Kettering Cancer Center experience // Clin Cancer Res, 2004; 10:6302-6303CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 33. Motz er RJ, Bacik J, Murphy BA, et al. Interferon- alfa as a comparative treatment for clinical trials of new therapies against advanced renal cell carcinoma // J Clin Oncol, 2002; 20:289-296CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 34. Motz er RJ, Bukowski RM, Figlin, et al. Prognostic nomogram for sunitinib in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma // Cancer, 2008; 113:1552-1558Google Scholar

  • 35. Negr ier S, Gomez F, Douillard JY, et al. Prognostic factors of response or failure of treatment in patients with metastatic renal carcinomas treated by cytokines: a report from the Groupe Francais d’Immunotherapie // World J Urol, 2005; 23:161-165CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 36. Park er AS, Leibovich BC, Lohse CM, et al. Development and evaluation of BioScore: A biomarker panel to enhance prognostic algorithms for clear cell renal cell carcinoma // Cancer, 2009; 115:2092-2103Google Scholar

  • 37. Sorb ellini M, Kattan MW, Snyder M, et al. A postoperative prognostic nomogram predicting recurrence for patients with conventional clear cell renal cell carcinoma // J Urol, 2005; 173:48-51Google Scholar

  • 38. Sun M, Shariat SF, Cheng C, et al. Prognostic factors and predictive models in renal cell carcinoma: a contemporary review// Eur Urol, 2011; 60(4):644-661PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 39. Tan MH, Choong CV, Chia KS, et al. The Karakiewicz nomogram is the most useful clinical predictor for survival outcomes in patients with localized renal cell carcinoma // Cancer, 2011; 117:5314-5324Web of ScienceCrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • 40. Tang PA, Vickers MM, Heng DY, Heng YC. Clinical and molecular prognostic factors in renal cell carcinoma: what we know so far // Hematol Oncol Clin North Am, 2011; 25(4):871-891PubMedWeb of ScienceCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 41. Tapp er H, Klein H, Rubenstein W, et al. Recurrent renal cell carcinoma after 45 years // Clin Imaging, 1997; 21(4):273-275CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 42. Terr one C, Cracco F, Porpiglia F, et al. Reassessing the current TNM lymph node staging for renal cell carcinoma // Eur Urol, 2006; 49(2):324-31.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • 43. Volpe A, Patard JJ. Prognostic factors in renal cell carcinoma // World J Urol, 2010; 28(3):319-327PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 44. Wu Y, Fu X, Xiaoli Z, et al. Prognostic role of systemic inflammatory response in renal cell carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis // J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, 2011; 137(5):887-896PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 45. Zisman A, Pantuck AJ, Wieder J, et al. Risk group assessment and clinical outcome algorithm to predict the natural history of patients with surgically resected renal cell carcinoma // J Clin Oncol, 2002; 20:4559-4566 CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2013-09-05

Published in Print: 2013-12-01

Citation Information: Acta Chirurgica Latviensis, Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 63–70, ISSN (Print) 1407-981X, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/chilat-2013-0012.

Export Citation

This content is open access.

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in