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Predicting voice alternation across academic Englishes

Marianne Hundt / Melanie Röthlisberger / Elena Seoane
Published Online: 2018-04-11 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/cllt-2017-0050

Abstract

Academic writing in the second half of the twentieth century witnesses a notable decrease in be-passives in British and American English (AmE). This trend is more advanced in the soft than in the hard sciences; with the exception of AmE, moreover, regional variation is not highly significant. This paper aims to discover whether the use of passives is conditioned by the same factors across seven different varieties of English (both as a first and as an institutionalized second language). For this purpose, we automatically retrieve central be-passives and active transitives from syntactically annotated International Corpus of English corpora and code for factors that are likely to play a role in the choice between active and passive (such as the semantics of the participant roles or the length of the constituents). Our results show that, while the same factors predict the choice of a passive over an active verb phrase across first- and second-language varieties, subtle differences are found in the effect size that some factors (animacy, givenness and length of passive subject) have, notably in Hong Kong and Philippine English. Some (but not all) of these find an explanation in substrate influence.

Keywords: passive; probabilistic grammar; academic writing; World Englishes; substrate influence

References

    Corpora

      ICE International Corpus of English

        Bibliography

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        • Bao, Zhiming & Lionel Wee. 1999. The passive in Singapore English. World Englishes 18(1). 1–11.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

        • Bates, Douglas, Martin Mächler, Benjamin Bolker & Steve Walker. 2015. Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. Journal of Statistical Software 67(1). 1–48.Google Scholar

        • Behagel, Otto. 1909. Beziehungen Zwischen Umfang Und Reihenfolge von Satzgliedern. Indogermanische Forschungen 25. 110–142.Google Scholar

        • Behagel, Otto. 1930. Von deutscher Wortstellung. Zeitschrift für Deutschkunde 44. 81–89.Google Scholar

        • Biber, Douglas & Edward Finegan. 1989. Drift and evolution of English style: A history of three genres. Language 65. 487–517.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

        • Biewer, Carolin. 2009. Passive constructions in Fiji English: A corpus-based study. In Andreas H. Jucker, Daniel Schreier & Marianne Hundt (eds.), Corpora: Pragmatics and discourse, 361–377. Amsterdam: Rodopi.Google Scholar

        • Biewer, Carolin. 2015. South Pacific Englishes. A sociolinguistic and morphosyntactic profile of Fiji English, Samoan English and Cook Islands English. Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar

        • Bresnan, Joan & Marilyn Ford. 2010. Predicting syntax: Processing dative constructions in American and Australian varieties of English. Language 86(1). 168–213.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

        • Bresnan, Joan & Jennifer Hay. 2008. Gradient grammar: An effect of animacy on the syntax of give in New Zealand and American English. Lingua 118. 245–259.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

        • Davies, Mark & Robert Fuchs. 2015. Expanding horizons in the study of World Englishes with the 1.9 billion word Global Web-based English Corpus (GloWbE). English World-Wide 36(1). 1–28.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

        • Deterding, David. 2007. Singapore English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar

        • Deterding, David, Jenny Wong & Andy Kirkpatrick. 2008. The pronunciation of Hong Kong English. English World-Wide 29(2). 148–175.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

        • Dreschler, Gea. 2015. Passives and the loss of verb second: A study of syntactic and information-structural factors (LOT Dissertation Series 402). Utrecht: LOT.Google Scholar

        • Fox, John. 2003. Effect displays in R for generalised linear models. Journal of Statistical Software 8(15). 1–27. http://www.jstatsoft.org/v08/i15/ (accessed 28 November 2017)).

        • Gelman, Andrew. 2008. Scaling regression inputs by dividing by two standard deviations. Statistics in Medicine 27(15). 2865–2873.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

        • Geraghty, Paul. 2008. Fijian. Victoria: Lonely Planet Publications.Google Scholar

        • Geraghty, Paul, France Mugler & Jan Tent (eds.). 2006. Macquarie dictionary of English for the Fiji Islands. Sydney: The Macquarie Library.Google Scholar

        • Gunn, Edward. 2017. Westernization of Chinese grammar. In Rint Sybesma, Wolfgang Behr, Yuego Gu, Zev Handel & C.-T. James Huang (eds.), Encyclopedia of Chinese language and linguistics. Leiden: Brill. doi: (accessed 20 July 2017).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

        • Hawkins, John A. 2004. Efficiency and complexity in grammars. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

        • Hinrichs, Lars & Benedikt Szmrecsanyi. 2007. Recent changes in the function and frequency of standard English genitive constructions: A multivariate analysis of tagged corpora. English Language and Linguistics 11. 437–474.Google Scholar

        • Hosmer, David & Stanley Lemeshow. 2000. Applied logistic regression. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar

        • Hothorn, Torsten, Kurt Hornik & Achim Zeileis. 2006. Unbiased recursive partitioning: A conditional inference framework. Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics 15(3). 651–674.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

        • Hundt, Marianne. 2004. The passival and the progressive passive: A case study in layering in the English aspect and voice systems. In Hans Lindquist & Christian Mair (eds.), Corpus approaches to grammaticalization in English, 79–120. Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar

        • Hundt, Marianne. 2007. English mediopassive constructions. Amsterdam: Rodopi.Google Scholar

        • Hundt, Marianne. 2013. Using web-based data for the study of global English. In Manfred Krug & Julia Schlüter (eds.), Research methods in language variation and change, 158–177. Cambridge: University Press.Google Scholar

        • Hundt, Marianne & Christian Mair. 1999. Agile and uptight genres: The corpus-based approach to language change in progress. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 4(2). 221–242.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

        • Hundt, Marianne, Gerold Schneider & Elena Seoane. 2016. The use of the be-passive in academic Englishes: Local vs. global usage in an international language. Corpora 11(1). 31–63.Google Scholar

        • Hundt, Marianne, Lena Zipp & André Huber. 2015. Attitudes towards varieties of English in Fiji: A shift to endonormativity? World Englishes 34(3). 688–707.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

        • Kachru, Yamuna. 2006. Hindi. Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar

        • Keenan, Edward L. 1985. Passive in the world’s languages. In Timothy Shopen (ed.), Language typology and syntactic description, vol. 1, 243–281. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

        • Kondo, Takako. 2005. Overpassivization in second language acquisition. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching (IRAL) 43. 129–161.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

        • Kortmann, Bernd & Benedikt Szmrecsanyi. 2009. World Englishes between simplification and complexification. In Thomas Hoffmann & Lucia Siebers (eds.), World Englishes. Problems, properties and prospects, 263–286. Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar

        • Leech, Geoffrey, Marianne Hundt, Christian Mair & Nicholas Smith. 2009. Change in contemporary English: A grammatical study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

        • Lynch, John. 1998. Pacific languages: An introduction. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.Google Scholar

        • Maratsos, Michael. 1988. Crosslinguistic analysis, universals, and language acquisition. In Frank E. Kessel (ed.), The development of language and language researchers. Essays in honor of Roger Brown, 121–152. Hilldale: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar

        • Matthews, Stephen & Virginia Yip. 1994. Cantonese: A comprehensive grammar. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar

        • McFarland, Curtis D. 2008. Linguistic diversity and English in the Philippines. In M. A. Lourdes, S. Bautista & Kingsley Bolton (eds.), Philippine English: Language and literary perspectives, 131–156. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar

        • Menard, Scott. 2010. Logistic regression: From introductory to advanced concepts and applications. Thousand Oakes: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar

        • Pinheiro, José C. & Douglas M. Bates. 2000. Mixed-effects models in S and S-PLUS. New York: Springer.Google Scholar

        • R Core Team. 2016. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. https://www.R-project.org/

        • Ransom, Evelyn. 1979. Definiteness and animacy constraints on passive and double-object constructions in English. Glossa 13. 215–240.Google Scholar

        • Rosenbach, Anette. 2007. Animacy and grammatical variation: Findings from English genitive variation. Lingua 118. 151–171.Google Scholar

        • Sandahl, Stella. 2000. A Hindi reference grammar. Leuven: Peeters.Google Scholar

        • Schachter, Paul & Fe T. Otanes. 1972. Tagalog reference grammar. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar

        • Schneider, Edgar W. 2007. Postcolonial English: Varieties around the world. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

        • Schneider, Gerold. 2008. Hybrid long-distance functional dependency parsing. Zurich: University of Zurich dissertation.Google Scholar

        • Schütz, Albert J. 2014. Fijian reference grammar. Honolulu: Pacific Voices Press.Google Scholar

        • Seoane, Elena. 2006. Changing styles: On the recent evolution of scientific British and American English. In Christiane Dalton-Puffer, Dieter Kastovsky, Nikolaus Ritt & Herbert Schendl (eds.), Syntax, style and grammatical norms: English from 1500–2000, 191–211. Bern: Peter Lang.Google Scholar

        • Seoane, Elena. 2009. Syntactic complexity, discourse status and animacy as determinants of grammatical variation in English. English Language and Linguistics 13(3). 365–384.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

        • Seoane, Elena. 2012. Givenness and word order: A study of long passives in Modern and Present-Day English. In Anneli Meurman-Solin, María José López-Couso & Bettelou Los (eds.), Information structure and syntactic change in the history of English, 139–163. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

        • Seoane, Elena & Marianne Hundt. 2018. Voice alternation and authorial presence: Variation across disciplinary areas in academic English. To appear in Journal of English Linguistics. 46(1). 3–22CrossrefGoogle Scholar

        • Seoane, Elena & Lucía Loureiro-Porto. 2005. On the colloquialization of scientific British and American English. ESP Across Cultures 2. 106–118.Google Scholar

        • Shibatani, Masayoshi. 1988. Voice in Philippine languages. In Masayoshi Shibatani (ed.), Passive and voice, 85–142. Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar

        • Silverstein, Michael. 1976. Hierarchy of features and ergativity. In Robert M. W. Dixon (ed.), Grammatical categories in Australian languages, 112–171. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.Google Scholar

        • Strobl, Carolin, Torsten Hothorn & Achim Zeileis. 2009. Party on! A new, conditional variable-important measure for random forests available in the party package. The R Journal 1(2). 14–17.Google Scholar

        • Szmrecsanyi, Benedikt, Jason Grafmiller, Benedikt Heller & Melanie Röthlisberger. 2016. Around the world in three alternations: Modelling syntactic variation in varieties of English. English World-Wide 37(2). 109–137.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

        • Tagliamonte, Sali & Harald Baayen. 2012. Models, forests, and trees of York English: Was/were variation as a case study for statistical practice. Language Variation and Change 24. 135–178.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

        • Thomason, Sarah G. 2013. Innovation and contact: The role of adults (and children). In Daniel Schreier & Marianne Hundt (eds.), English as a contact language, 283–297. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

        • Wasow, Thomas. 2002. Postverbal behavior. Stanford: CSLI Publications.Google Scholar

        • Wasow, Thomas & Jennifer Arnold. 2003. Post-verbal constituent ordering in English. In Gunter Rohdenburg & Britta Mondorf (eds.), Determinants of grammatical variation in English, 119–154. Berlin: de Gruyter.Google Scholar

        • Xiao, Richard, Tony McEnery & Yufang Qian. 2006. Passive constructions in English and Chinese. A corpus-based contrastive study. Languages in Contrast 6(1). 109–149.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

        • Zaenen, Annie, Joan Bresnan, M. Catherine O’Connor, Jean Carletta, Andrew Koontz-Garboden, Tom Wasow, Gregory Garretson & Tatiana Nikitina. 2004. Animacy encoding in English: Why and how. Proceedings of the ACL-04 [Association for Computational Linguistics] Workshop on Discourse Annotation. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.154.7 (accessed 23 November 2017).

        • Zipp, Lena. 2014. Educated Fiji English. Lexico-grammar and variety status. Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar

        • Zuur, Alain F., Elena Ieno, Neil J. Walker, Anatoly A. Saveliev & Graham M. Smith. 2009. Mixed effects models and extensions in ecology with R. New York: Springer.Google Scholar

      Corpora

        ICE International Corpus of English

          Bibliography

          • Baayen, Harald. 2008. Analyzing linguistic data: A practical introduction to statistics using R. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

          • Bao, Zhiming & Lionel Wee. 1999. The passive in Singapore English. World Englishes 18(1). 1–11.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

          • Bates, Douglas, Martin Mächler, Benjamin Bolker & Steve Walker. 2015. Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. Journal of Statistical Software 67(1). 1–48.Google Scholar

          • Behagel, Otto. 1909. Beziehungen Zwischen Umfang Und Reihenfolge von Satzgliedern. Indogermanische Forschungen 25. 110–142.Google Scholar

          • Behagel, Otto. 1930. Von deutscher Wortstellung. Zeitschrift für Deutschkunde 44. 81–89.Google Scholar

          • Biber, Douglas & Edward Finegan. 1989. Drift and evolution of English style: A history of three genres. Language 65. 487–517.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

          • Biewer, Carolin. 2009. Passive constructions in Fiji English: A corpus-based study. In Andreas H. Jucker, Daniel Schreier & Marianne Hundt (eds.), Corpora: Pragmatics and discourse, 361–377. Amsterdam: Rodopi.Google Scholar

          • Biewer, Carolin. 2015. South Pacific Englishes. A sociolinguistic and morphosyntactic profile of Fiji English, Samoan English and Cook Islands English. Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar

          • Bresnan, Joan & Marilyn Ford. 2010. Predicting syntax: Processing dative constructions in American and Australian varieties of English. Language 86(1). 168–213.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

          • Bresnan, Joan & Jennifer Hay. 2008. Gradient grammar: An effect of animacy on the syntax of give in New Zealand and American English. Lingua 118. 245–259.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

          • Davies, Mark & Robert Fuchs. 2015. Expanding horizons in the study of World Englishes with the 1.9 billion word Global Web-based English Corpus (GloWbE). English World-Wide 36(1). 1–28.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

          • Deterding, David. 2007. Singapore English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar

          • Deterding, David, Jenny Wong & Andy Kirkpatrick. 2008. The pronunciation of Hong Kong English. English World-Wide 29(2). 148–175.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

          • Dreschler, Gea. 2015. Passives and the loss of verb second: A study of syntactic and information-structural factors (LOT Dissertation Series 402). Utrecht: LOT.Google Scholar

          • Fox, John. 2003. Effect displays in R for generalised linear models. Journal of Statistical Software 8(15). 1–27. http://www.jstatsoft.org/v08/i15/ (accessed 28 November 2017)).

          • Gelman, Andrew. 2008. Scaling regression inputs by dividing by two standard deviations. Statistics in Medicine 27(15). 2865–2873.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

          • Geraghty, Paul. 2008. Fijian. Victoria: Lonely Planet Publications.Google Scholar

          • Geraghty, Paul, France Mugler & Jan Tent (eds.). 2006. Macquarie dictionary of English for the Fiji Islands. Sydney: The Macquarie Library.Google Scholar

          • Gunn, Edward. 2017. Westernization of Chinese grammar. In Rint Sybesma, Wolfgang Behr, Yuego Gu, Zev Handel & C.-T. James Huang (eds.), Encyclopedia of Chinese language and linguistics. Leiden: Brill. doi: (accessed 20 July 2017).CrossrefGoogle Scholar

          • Hawkins, John A. 2004. Efficiency and complexity in grammars. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

          • Hinrichs, Lars & Benedikt Szmrecsanyi. 2007. Recent changes in the function and frequency of standard English genitive constructions: A multivariate analysis of tagged corpora. English Language and Linguistics 11. 437–474.Google Scholar

          • Hosmer, David & Stanley Lemeshow. 2000. Applied logistic regression. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar

          • Hothorn, Torsten, Kurt Hornik & Achim Zeileis. 2006. Unbiased recursive partitioning: A conditional inference framework. Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics 15(3). 651–674.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

          • Hundt, Marianne. 2004. The passival and the progressive passive: A case study in layering in the English aspect and voice systems. In Hans Lindquist & Christian Mair (eds.), Corpus approaches to grammaticalization in English, 79–120. Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar

          • Hundt, Marianne. 2007. English mediopassive constructions. Amsterdam: Rodopi.Google Scholar

          • Hundt, Marianne. 2013. Using web-based data for the study of global English. In Manfred Krug & Julia Schlüter (eds.), Research methods in language variation and change, 158–177. Cambridge: University Press.Google Scholar

          • Hundt, Marianne & Christian Mair. 1999. Agile and uptight genres: The corpus-based approach to language change in progress. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 4(2). 221–242.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

          • Hundt, Marianne, Gerold Schneider & Elena Seoane. 2016. The use of the be-passive in academic Englishes: Local vs. global usage in an international language. Corpora 11(1). 31–63.Google Scholar

          • Hundt, Marianne, Lena Zipp & André Huber. 2015. Attitudes towards varieties of English in Fiji: A shift to endonormativity? World Englishes 34(3). 688–707.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

          • Kachru, Yamuna. 2006. Hindi. Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar

          • Keenan, Edward L. 1985. Passive in the world’s languages. In Timothy Shopen (ed.), Language typology and syntactic description, vol. 1, 243–281. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

          • Kondo, Takako. 2005. Overpassivization in second language acquisition. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching (IRAL) 43. 129–161.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

          • Kortmann, Bernd & Benedikt Szmrecsanyi. 2009. World Englishes between simplification and complexification. In Thomas Hoffmann & Lucia Siebers (eds.), World Englishes. Problems, properties and prospects, 263–286. Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar

          • Leech, Geoffrey, Marianne Hundt, Christian Mair & Nicholas Smith. 2009. Change in contemporary English: A grammatical study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

          • Lynch, John. 1998. Pacific languages: An introduction. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.Google Scholar

          • Maratsos, Michael. 1988. Crosslinguistic analysis, universals, and language acquisition. In Frank E. Kessel (ed.), The development of language and language researchers. Essays in honor of Roger Brown, 121–152. Hilldale: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar

          • Matthews, Stephen & Virginia Yip. 1994. Cantonese: A comprehensive grammar. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar

          • McFarland, Curtis D. 2008. Linguistic diversity and English in the Philippines. In M. A. Lourdes, S. Bautista & Kingsley Bolton (eds.), Philippine English: Language and literary perspectives, 131–156. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar

          • Menard, Scott. 2010. Logistic regression: From introductory to advanced concepts and applications. Thousand Oakes: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar

          • Pinheiro, José C. & Douglas M. Bates. 2000. Mixed-effects models in S and S-PLUS. New York: Springer.Google Scholar

          • R Core Team. 2016. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. https://www.R-project.org/

          • Ransom, Evelyn. 1979. Definiteness and animacy constraints on passive and double-object constructions in English. Glossa 13. 215–240.Google Scholar

          • Rosenbach, Anette. 2007. Animacy and grammatical variation: Findings from English genitive variation. Lingua 118. 151–171.Google Scholar

          • Sandahl, Stella. 2000. A Hindi reference grammar. Leuven: Peeters.Google Scholar

          • Schachter, Paul & Fe T. Otanes. 1972. Tagalog reference grammar. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar

          • Schneider, Edgar W. 2007. Postcolonial English: Varieties around the world. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

          • Schneider, Gerold. 2008. Hybrid long-distance functional dependency parsing. Zurich: University of Zurich dissertation.Google Scholar

          • Schütz, Albert J. 2014. Fijian reference grammar. Honolulu: Pacific Voices Press.Google Scholar

          • Seoane, Elena. 2006. Changing styles: On the recent evolution of scientific British and American English. In Christiane Dalton-Puffer, Dieter Kastovsky, Nikolaus Ritt & Herbert Schendl (eds.), Syntax, style and grammatical norms: English from 1500–2000, 191–211. Bern: Peter Lang.Google Scholar

          • Seoane, Elena. 2009. Syntactic complexity, discourse status and animacy as determinants of grammatical variation in English. English Language and Linguistics 13(3). 365–384.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

          • Seoane, Elena. 2012. Givenness and word order: A study of long passives in Modern and Present-Day English. In Anneli Meurman-Solin, María José López-Couso & Bettelou Los (eds.), Information structure and syntactic change in the history of English, 139–163. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

          • Seoane, Elena & Marianne Hundt. 2018. Voice alternation and authorial presence: Variation across disciplinary areas in academic English. To appear in Journal of English Linguistics. 46(1). 3–22CrossrefGoogle Scholar

          • Seoane, Elena & Lucía Loureiro-Porto. 2005. On the colloquialization of scientific British and American English. ESP Across Cultures 2. 106–118.Google Scholar

          • Shibatani, Masayoshi. 1988. Voice in Philippine languages. In Masayoshi Shibatani (ed.), Passive and voice, 85–142. Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar

          • Silverstein, Michael. 1976. Hierarchy of features and ergativity. In Robert M. W. Dixon (ed.), Grammatical categories in Australian languages, 112–171. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.Google Scholar

          • Strobl, Carolin, Torsten Hothorn & Achim Zeileis. 2009. Party on! A new, conditional variable-important measure for random forests available in the party package. The R Journal 1(2). 14–17.Google Scholar

          • Szmrecsanyi, Benedikt, Jason Grafmiller, Benedikt Heller & Melanie Röthlisberger. 2016. Around the world in three alternations: Modelling syntactic variation in varieties of English. English World-Wide 37(2). 109–137.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

          • Tagliamonte, Sali & Harald Baayen. 2012. Models, forests, and trees of York English: Was/were variation as a case study for statistical practice. Language Variation and Change 24. 135–178.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

          • Thomason, Sarah G. 2013. Innovation and contact: The role of adults (and children). In Daniel Schreier & Marianne Hundt (eds.), English as a contact language, 283–297. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

          • Wasow, Thomas. 2002. Postverbal behavior. Stanford: CSLI Publications.Google Scholar

          • Wasow, Thomas & Jennifer Arnold. 2003. Post-verbal constituent ordering in English. In Gunter Rohdenburg & Britta Mondorf (eds.), Determinants of grammatical variation in English, 119–154. Berlin: de Gruyter.Google Scholar

          • Xiao, Richard, Tony McEnery & Yufang Qian. 2006. Passive constructions in English and Chinese. A corpus-based contrastive study. Languages in Contrast 6(1). 109–149.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

          • Zaenen, Annie, Joan Bresnan, M. Catherine O’Connor, Jean Carletta, Andrew Koontz-Garboden, Tom Wasow, Gregory Garretson & Tatiana Nikitina. 2004. Animacy encoding in English: Why and how. Proceedings of the ACL-04 [Association for Computational Linguistics] Workshop on Discourse Annotation. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.154.7 (accessed 23 November 2017).

          • Zipp, Lena. 2014. Educated Fiji English. Lexico-grammar and variety status. Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar

          • Zuur, Alain F., Elena Ieno, Neil J. Walker, Anatoly A. Saveliev & Graham M. Smith. 2009. Mixed effects models and extensions in ecology with R. New York: Springer.Google Scholar

          About the article

          Marianne Hundt

          Marianne Hundt (born 1966, PhD University of Freiburg, 1996) is a professor in English Linguistics at the University of Zurich. Her research focus is on corpus-based studies of grammatical change in (Late) Modern and current World Englishes. She is co-editor of English World-Wide and has been actively involved in the compilation of various corpora (historical and contemporary).

          Melanie Röthlisberger

          Melanie Röthlisberger (born 1986, PhD KU Leuven, 2018) is a senior research and teaching assistant at the English Department, University of Zurich. Her main research focus is on morphosyntactic variation in World Englishes and dialects of English within the framework of Cognitive Sociolinguistics. She has been actively involved in the compilation of various corpora and has a keen interest in statistical methods and visualization techniques.

          Elena Seoane

          Elena Seoane (born 1967, PhD University of Santiago de Compostela, 1996) is an Associate Professor in English Linguistics at the University of Vigo (Spain). Her research focus is on corpus-based morphosyntactic change in the history of English and current World Englishes. She is review editor of English Language and Linguistics and is involved in the compilation of various historical and contemporary corpora.


          Published Online: 2018-04-11


          Citation Information: Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory, ISSN (Online) 1613-7035, ISSN (Print) 1613-7027, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/cllt-2017-0050.

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