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Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters

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Volume 14, Issue 1


Oral cyclosporine A - the current picture of its liposomal and other delivery systems

Aleksander Czogalla
Published Online: 2008-12-24 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11658-008-0041-6


The discovery of cyclosporine A was a milestone in organ transplantation and the treatment of autoimmune diseases. However, developing an efficient oral delivery system for this drug is complicated by its poor biopharmaceutical characteristics (low solubility and permeability) and the need to carefully monitor its levels in the blood. Current research is exploring various approaches, including those based on emulsions, microspheres, nanoparticles, and liposomes. Although progress has been made, none of the formulations is flawless. This review is a brief description of the main pharmaceutical systems and devices that have been described for the oral delivery of cyclosporine A in the context of the physicochemical properties of the drug and the character of its interactions with lipid membranes.

Keywords: Cyclosporine A; Physicochemical properties; Oral drug delivery; Liposomes; Nanoparticles

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Published Online: 2008-12-24

Published in Print: 2009-03-01

Citation Information: Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 139–152, ISSN (Online) 1689-1392, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/s11658-008-0041-6.

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Chang Hyun Park, Hyung Keun Lee, Mee Kum Kim, Eun Chul Kim, Jae Yong Kim, Tae-im Kim, Hong Kyun Kim, Jong Suk Song, Kyung Chul Yoon, Do Hyung Lee, Tae-Young Chung, Chul Young Choi, and Hyun Seung Kim
BMC Ophthalmology, 2019, Volume 19, Number 1
Dhrumi Patel and Sarika Wairkar
Drug Delivery and Translational Research, 2019
Ahmed A. Abdulhussein Al-Ali, Rasmus Blaaholm Nielsen, Bente Steffansen, René Holm, and Carsten Uhd Nielsen
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2019, Volume 566, Page 410
Paula Berton, Manish Kumar Mishra, Hemant Choudhary, Allan S. Myerson, and Robin D. Rogers
ACS Omega, 2019, Volume 4, Number 5, Page 7938
Małgorzata Jurak, Agnieszka Ewa Wiącek, Kacper Przykaza, Agata Ładniak, and Klaudia Woźniak
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 2019
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The AAPS Journal, 2018, Volume 20, Number 4
Sumit Bhatnagar, Kirti Dhingra Verma, Yongjun Hu, Eshita Khera, Aaron Priluck, David Smith, and Greg M. Thurber
Molecular Pharmaceutics, 2018
Anita Wnętrzak, Katarzyna Makyła-Juzak, Anna Chachaj-Brekiesz, Ewelina Lipiec, Nuria Vila Romeu, and Patrycja Dynarowicz-Latka
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 2018
Ditlev Birch, Ragna G. Diedrichsen, Philip C. Christophersen, Huiling Mu, and Hanne M. Nielsen
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2018
Frédéric Lallemand, Mathieu Schmitt, Jean-Louis Bourges, Robert Gurny, Simon Benita, and Jean-Sébastien Garrigue
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 2017, Volume 117, Page 14
Hiroki Suzuki, Kodai Ueno, Takahiro Mizumoto, Yoshiki Seto, Hideyuki Sato, and Satomi Onoue
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2017, Volume 96, Page 107
Ana Carmona-Ribeiro and Letícia de Melo Carrasco
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2014, Volume 15, Number 10, Page 18040
Dongmei Jiang, Jin Zeng, Yuan Zhu, Guanghui Zhou, Wenwen Deng, Ximing Xu, and Jiangnan Yu
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, 2016, Volume 42, Number 7, Page 1174
Praew Thansandote, Robert M. Harris, Hannah L. Dexter, Graham L. Simpson, Sandeep Pal, Richard J. Upton, and Klara Valko
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 2015, Volume 23, Number 2, Page 322
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British Journal of Pharmacology, 2014, Volume 171, Number 17, Page 3988
Xi Zhang, Yueneng Yi, Jianping Qi, Yi Lu, Zhiqiang Tian, Yunchang Xie, Hailong Yuan, and Wei Wu
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2013, Volume 452, Number 1-2, Page 233
Li Tang, Jamil Azzi, Mincheol Kwon, Marwan Mounayar, Rong Tong, Qian Yin, Robert Moore, Nikolaos Skartsis, Timothy M. Fan, Reza Abdi, and Jianjun Cheng
Journal of Transplantation, 2012, Volume 2012, Page 1
Ziyaur Rahman, Ahmed S. Zidan, Muhammad J. Habib, and Mansoor A. Khan
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2010, Volume 389, Number 1-2, Page 186
Sara Biagiotti, Luigia Rossi, Marzia Bianchi, Elisa Giacomini, Francesca Pierigè, Giordano Serafini, Pier Giulio Conaldi, and Mauro Magnani
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International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2010, Volume 399, Number 1-2, Page 94
Subhashis Chakraborty, Dali Shukla, Brahmeshwar Mishra, and Sanjay Singh
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 2009, Volume 73, Number 1, Page 1
K. Mondon, M. Zeisser-Labouèbe, R. Gurny, and M. Möller
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 2011, Volume 77, Number 1, Page 56
Slim Azouzi, Sandrine Morandat, and Karim El Kirat
Langmuir, 2011, Volume 27, Number 15, Page 9465
Samar Hamdy, Azita Haddadi, Anooshirvan Shayeganpour, Aws Alshamsan, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, and Afsaneh Lavasanifar
The AAPS Journal, 2011, Volume 13, Number 2, Page 159
Gert Fricker, Torsten Kromp, Armin Wendel, Alfred Blume, Jürgen Zirkel, Herbert Rebmann, Constanze Setzer, Ralf-Olaf Quinkert, Frank Martin, and Christel Müller-Goymann
Pharmaceutical Research, 2010, Volume 27, Number 8, Page 1469

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