Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Corrosion Reviews

Editor-in-Chief: Latanision, Ronald M. / Rebak, Raúl B.

6 Issues per year

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 1.085
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.655

CiteScore 2016: 1.17

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.427
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.675

See all formats and pricing
More options …
Volume 31, Issue 3-6 (Dec 2013)


In situ remediation of leaks in potable water supply systems

Min Tang
  • Corresponding author
  • Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Virginia Tech, Durham Hall 418, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Simoni Triantafyllidou
  • Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Virginia Tech, Durham Hall 418, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Marc Edwards
  • Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Virginia Tech, Durham Hall 418, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2013-11-22 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/corrrev-2013-0026


Water leaks in distribution system mains and premise plumbing systems have very high costs and public health implications. The possible in situ remediation of leaks while a pipeline is in service could reduce leaking at costs orders of magnitude lower than conventional pipe repair, rehabilitation, or replacement. Experiences of Roman engineers and recent field observations suggest that such processes can occur naturally or may even be engineered to ameliorate leaks, including those caused by metallic corrosion. Three mechanisms of in situ leak remediation (i.e., metallic corrosion, physical clogging, and precipitation) are described in this paper, in an effort to understand the role of physical factors (e.g., temperature, pressure, and leak size) and water chemistry (e.g., pH, alkalinity, corrosion inhibitors, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity) in controlling in situ remediation for both inert (plastic and aged concrete) and chemically reactive (new concrete, copper, and iron) pipe materials. Although there are possible limitations and uncertainties with the phenomenon, including the fraction of pipeline leaks to which it might apply and the durability/longevity of remediation, such approaches may prove useful in economically sustaining some aging drinking water infrastructure assets and reducing future failure rates.

Keywords: in situ remediation; leaks; mechanisms; premise plumbing; water mains


  • American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). Failure to act: the economic impact of current investment trends in water and wastewater treatment infrastructure. Washington, DC, 2011.Google Scholar

  • American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). Report card for America’s infrastructure, Washington, DC, 2013. Accessed at http://www.infrastructurereportcard.org/a/#p/drinking-water/conditions-and-capacity.

  • American Water Works Association (AWWA). Reinvesting in drinking water infrastructure. Report in May 2001.Google Scholar

  • American Water Works Association (AWWA). Internal corrosion control in water distribution systems – manual of water supply practices M58, 1st ed., Denver, CO: AWWA, 2011.Google Scholar

  • American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AWWARF). Internal corrosion of water distribution systems, 2nd ed., Denver, CO: AWWARF/DVGW-Technologiezentrum, 1996.Google Scholar

  • Benjamin MM, Lawler, DF. Water quality engineering: physical/chemical treatment processes, 1st ed., New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2013.Google Scholar

  • Bosch D, Sarver E. Economic costs of pinhole leaks and corrosion prevention in U.S. drinking water plumbing. In: Proc 2007 AWWA Ann Conf Exhibit, Toronto, CA, 2007.Google Scholar

  • Boulay N, Edwards M. Role of temperature, chlorine, and organic matter in copper corrosion by-product release in soft water. Water Res 2001; 35: 683–690.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Broo AE, Berghult B, Hedberg T. Copper corrosion in drinking water distribution systems – the influence of water quality. Corros Sci 1998; 39: 1119–1132.Google Scholar

  • Calle GR, Vargas IT, Pastén PA, Pizarro GE. Enhanced copper release from pipes by alternating stagnation and flow events. Environ Sci Technol 2007; 41: 7430–7436.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Campbell HS, Turner MED. The influence of trace organics on scale formation and corrosion. J Inst Water Eng Sci 1983; 4: 55.Google Scholar

  • Clear CA. The effects of autogenous healing upon the leakage of water through cracks in concrete. Cem Concr Res 1985. Technical Report.Google Scholar

  • Davis CC, Edwards M, Knocke WR. Implications of silica sorption to iron hydroxide: mobilization of iron colloids and interference with sorption of arsenate and humic substances. Environ Sci Technol 2001; 35: 3158–3162.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Dodrill D, Edwards M. Corrosion control on the basis of utility experience. J Am Water Works Assoc 1995; 87: 74–85.Google Scholar

  • Dunn DS, Bogart MB, Brossia CS, Cragnolino GA. Corrosion of iron under alternating wet and dry conditions. Corrosion 2000; 56: 470–481.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Duthil JP, Mankowski G, Giusti A. The synergetic effect of chloride and sulphate on pitting corrosion of copper. Corros Sci 1996; 38: 1839–1849.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Edvardsen C. Water permeability and autogenous healing of cracks in concrete. ACI Mater J 1999; 96: 448–454.Google Scholar

  • Edwards M. Controlling corrosion in drinking water distribution systems: a grand challenge for the 21st century. Water Sci Technol 2004; 49: 1–12.Google Scholar

  • Edwards M, McNeill LS. Effect of phosphate inhibitors on lead release from pipes. J Am Water Works Assoc 2002; 94: 79–90.Google Scholar

  • Edwards M, Ferguson JF, Reiber S. The pitting corrosion of copper. J Am Water Works Assoc 1994; 86: 74–90.Google Scholar

  • Edwards M, Meyer T, Rehring J. Effect of selected anions on copper corrosion rates. J Am Water Works Assoc 1994; 86: 73–81.Google Scholar

  • Edwards M, Rehring J, Meyer T. Inorganic anions and copper pitting. Corrosion 1994; 50: 366–372.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Edwards M, Schock MR, Meyer TE. Alkalinity, pH, and copper corrosion by-product release. J Am Water Works Assoc 1996; 88: 81–94.Google Scholar

  • Edwards M, Jacobs S, Taylor RJ. The blue water phenomenon. J Am Water Works Assoc 2000; 92: 72–82.Google Scholar

  • Edzwald JK. Water quality & treatment: a handbook on drinking water, 6th ed., New York: AWWA, 2011.Google Scholar

  • Elzenga CHJ, Graveland A, Smeenk JGMM. Corrosion by mixing water of different qualities. Water Supp 1987; 5: SS12.Google Scholar

  • Evans U. An introduction to metallic corrosion, 2nd ed., London, UK: Edward Arnold, 1963.Google Scholar

  • Folkman S, Rice J, Sorenson A, Braithwaite N. Survey of water main failures in the United States and Canada. J Am Water Works Assoc 2013; 104: 70–79.Google Scholar

  • Frateur I, Deslouis C, Kiene L, Levi Y, Tribollet B. Free chlorine consumption induced by cast iron corrosion in drinking water distribution systems. Water Res 1999; 33: 1781–1790.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Frauendorfer R, Liemberger R. The issues and challenges of reducing non-revenue water. Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Asian Development Bank, 2010.Google Scholar

  • Ha H, Taxen C, Williams K, Scully J. Effects of selected water chemistry variables on copper pitting propagation in potable water. Electrochim Acta 2011; 56: 6165–6183.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hallam NB, West JR, Forster CF, Powell JC, Spencer I. The decay of chlorine associated with the pipe wall in water distribution systems. Water Res 2002; 36: 3479–3488.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hamilton WA. Sulphate-reducing bacteria and anaerobic corrosion. Annu Rev Microbiol 1985; 39: 195–217.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hearn N. Self-sealing, autogenous healing and continued hydration: what is the difference? Mater Struct 1998; 31: 563–567.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Hearn N, Morley CT. Self-sealing property of concrete – experimental evidence. Mater Struct 1997; 30: 404–411.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Helmuth R, Stark D, Diamond S, Moranville-Regourd M. Alkali-silica reactivity: an overview of research, Washington, DC: Strategic Highway Research Program, National Research Council, 1993.Google Scholar

  • Jacobs S, Edwards M. Sulfide scale catalysis of copper corrosion. Water Res 2000; 34: 2798–2808.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Jacobs S, Reiber S, Edwards M. Sulfide-induced copper corrosion. J Am Water Works Assoc 1998; 90: 62–73.Google Scholar

  • Kennedy RF. Finger in the dike, head in the sand, DEP’s crumbling water supply infrastructure, Elmsford, NY: Riverkeeper, Inc., 2001.Google Scholar

  • Koch GH, Brongers MPH, Thompson NG, Virmani YP, Payer JH. Corrosion cost and preventive strategies in the United States. Houston, TX: Report in CC Technologies Laboratories, Inc., 2001.Google Scholar

  • Korshin GV, Perry SAL, Ferguson JF. Influence of NOM on copper corrosion. J Am Water Works Assoc 1996; 88: 36–47.Google Scholar

  • Kosmulski M. Compilation of PZC and IEP of sparingly soluble metal oxides and hydroxides from literature. Adv Colloid Interf Sci 2009; 152: 14–25.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lauer KR, Slate FO. Autogenous healing of cement paste. J Am Concr I 1956; 27: 1083–1097.Google Scholar

  • LeChevallier MW, Lowry CD, Lee RG, Gibbon DL. Examining the relationship between iron corrosion and disinfection of biofilm bacteria. J Am Water Works Assoc 1993; 85: 111–123.Google Scholar

  • Letterman R, Chen S, Lavrykova N, Snyder S. Reducing the rate of leakage from the Delaware Aqueduct using calcium carbonate precipitate – a bench and pilot plant study. New York City Department of Environmental Protection, Progress Report, 2008.Google Scholar

  • Lewandowski BR, Lytle DA, Carno JC. Nanoscale investigation of the impact of pH and orthophosphate on the corrosion of copper surfaces in water. Langmuir 2010; 26: 14671–14679.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Li VC, Yang EH. Self healing in concrete materials. Springer Ser Mater 2007; 100: 161–194.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lin YP. Inhibition of calcite precipitation by natural organic matter and phosphates. PhD dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2005.Google Scholar

  • Lin YP, Singer PC. Inhibition of calcite crystal growth by polyphosphate. Water Res 2005; 39: 4835–4843.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Lin YP, Singer PC, Aiken GR. Inhibition of calcite precipitation by natural organic materials: kinetics, mechanism, and thermodynamics. Environ Sci Technol 2005; 39: 6240–6248.Google Scholar

  • Lytle DA, Nadagouda MN. A comprehensive investigation of copper pitting corrosion in a drinking water distribution system. Corros Sci 2010; 52: 1927–1938.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Lytle DA, Schock MR. Pitting corrosion of copper in waters with high pH and low alkalinity. J Am Water Works Assoc 2008; 100: 115–129.Google Scholar

  • Lytle DA, Snoeyink VL. Effect of ortho- and polyphosphates on the properties of iron particles and suspensions. J Am Water Works Assoc 2002; 94: 87–99.Google Scholar

  • Marshall BJ. Initiation, propagation, and mitigation of aluminum and chlorine induced pitting corrosion. Master Thesis, Virginia Tech, 2004.Google Scholar

  • Marshall B, Edwards M. Copper pinhole leak development in the presence of Al(OH)3 and free chlorine. In: Proceedings of the AWWA Annual Conference, San Francisco, CA, 2005.Google Scholar

  • Marshall B, Edwards M. Phosphate inhibition of copper pitting corrosion. Presented at the 2006 AWWA Water Quality Technology Conference, Denver, CO, 2006.Google Scholar

  • Mattsson E, Fredrikksson AM. Pitting corrosion in copper tubes – cause of corrosion and counter-measures. Br Corros J 1968; 3: 246–257.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • McNeill LS. Water quality factors influencing iron and lead corrosion in drinking water. PhD dissertation, Virginia Tech, 2000.Google Scholar

  • McNeill LS, Edwards M. Iron pipe corrosion in distribution systems. J Am Water Works Assoc 2001; 93: 88–100.Google Scholar

  • McNeill LS, Edwards M. The importance of temperature in assessing iron pipe corrosion in water distribution systems. Environ Monit Assess 2002; 77: 229–242.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Mishra B, Olson DL, AI-Hassan S. Physical characteristics of iron carbonates scale formation in linepipe steels. In: Proc Corrosion, 47th NACE Ann Conf, Nashville, TN, 1992.Google Scholar

  • Montgomery JM. Water treatment principles and design, 2nd ed., Pasadena, CA: Consulting Engineers, 1985.Google Scholar

  • Moulin P, Rogues H. Zeta potential measurement of calcium carbonate. J Colloid Interf Sci 2003; 261: 115–116.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Munday JGL, Sangha CM, Dhir RK. Comparative study of autogenous healing of different concretes. In: Proc 1st Australian Conf Eng Mater, University of South Wales, Sydney, Australia, 1974: 177–189.Google Scholar

  • Murray-Ramos NA. Examining aspects of copper and brass corrosion in drinking water. Master’s thesis, Virginia Tech, 2006.Google Scholar

  • Naidu R, Morrison RJ, Janik L, Adghar M. Clay mineralogy and surface charge characteristics of basaltic soils from Western Samoa. Clay Miner 1997; 32: 545–556.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Neville A. Autogenous healing – a concrete miracle? Concr Int 2002; 24: 76–82.Google Scholar

  • Neville A. The confused world of sulfate attack on concrete. Cem Concr Res 2004; 34: 1275–1296.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • New York City Government (NYC). Preparation underway to fix leak in Delaware Aqueduct. NYC Environmental Protection, 2008.Google Scholar

  • New York City Government (NYC). DEP issues draft environmental impact statement for repair of the Delaware Aqueduct. NYC Environmental Protection, 2011.Google Scholar

  • Nguyen CK. Interactions between copper and chlorine disinfectants: chlorine decay, chloramine decay and copper pitting. Master’s thesis, Virginia Tech, 2005.Google Scholar

  • Nguyen CK, Stone KR, Dudi A, Edwards M. Corrosive microenvironments at lead solder surfaces arising from galvanic corrosion with copper pipe. Environ Sci Technol 2010; 44: 7076–7081.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Noh JS, Schwarz JA. Estimation of the point of zero charge of simple oxides by mass titration. J Colloid Interf Sci 1989; 130: 157–164.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Obrecht MF, Quill LL. How temperature, treatment, and velocity of potable water affect corrosion of copper and its alloys in heat exchanger and piping systems. Heat Piping Air Cond 1960a; 32: 165–169.Google Scholar

  • Obrecht MF, Quill LL. How temperature, treatment, and velocity of potable water affect corrosion of copper and its alloys; cupro-nickel, admiralty tubes resist corrosion better. Heat Piping Air Cond 1960b; 32: 125–133.Google Scholar

  • Obrecht MF, Quill LL. How temperature, treatment, and velocity of potable water affect corrosion of copper and its alloys; different softened waters have broad corrosive effects on copper tubing. Heat Piping Air Cond 1960c; 32: 115–122.Google Scholar

  • Obrecht MF, Quill LL. How temperature, treatment, and velocity of potable water after corrosion of copper and its alloys; monitoring system reveals effects of different operating conditions. Heat Piping Air Cond 1960d; 32: 131–137.Google Scholar

  • Obrecht MF, Quill LL. How temperature, treatment, and velocity of potable water affect corrosion of copper and its alloys; tests show effects of water quality at various temperatures, velocities. Heat Piping Air Cond 1960e; 32: 105–113.Google Scholar

  • Obrecht MF, Quill LL. How temperature, treatment, and velocity of potable water affect corrosion of copper and its alloys; what is corrosion? Heat Piping Air Cond 1960f; 32: 109–116.Google Scholar

  • Parks J, Edwards M, Vikesland P, Dudi A. Effects of bulk water chemistry on autogenous healing of concrete. J Mater Civil Eng 2010; 22: 515–524.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Phillips MJ. Healed concrete is strong. Concrete 1925; 10: 36.Google Scholar

  • Pollio MV. VITRUVIUS: the ten books on architecture, 1st ed., New York: Translated by Morgan M, Dover, 1960.Google Scholar

  • Pourbaix M. Atlas of electrochemical equilibria in aqueous solutions, 2nd ed., London: Pergamon Press, 1974.Google Scholar

  • Pourbaix M. Electrochemical corrosion of metallic biomaterials. Biomaterials 1984; 5: 122–134.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Ramm W, Biscoping M. Autogenous healing and reinforcement corrosion of water-penetrated separation cracks in reinforced concrete. Nucl Eng Des 1998; 179: 191–200.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Rehring JP, Edwards M. Copper corrosion in potable water systems: impacts of natural organic matter and water treatment processes. Corrosion 1996; 52: 307–317.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Rodolfo A, Pisigan J, Singley JE. Influence of buffer capacity, chlorine residual, and flow rate on corrosion of mild steel and copper. J Am Water Works Assoc 1987; 79: 62–70.Google Scholar

  • Rushing JC, Edwards M. Effect of aluminum solids and free Cl2 on copper pitting. Corros Sci 2004a; 46: 3069–3088.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Rushing JC, Edwards M. The role of temperature gradients in residential copper pipe corrosion. Corros Sci 2004b; 46: 1883–1894.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Rushing JC, McNeill LS, Edwards M. Some effects of aqueous silica on the corrosion of iron. Water Res 2003; 37: 1080–1090.CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Ryan NJ, Evans K, Alexander P, Chirnside I, McEwan I, Stebbings T. Using platelet technology to seal and locate leaks in subsea umbilical lines. In: Proc 2007 Offshore Technol Conf, Houston, TX, 2007.Google Scholar

  • Ryder RA. The costs of internal corrosion in water systems. J Am Water Works Assoc 1980; 72: 267–279.Google Scholar

  • Santhanam M, Cohen MD, Olek J. Mechanism of sulfate attack: a fresh look part I: summary of experimental results. Cem Concr Res 2002; 32: 915–921.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Santhanam M, Cohen MD, Olek J. Mechanism of sulfate attack: a fresh look part II. proposed mechanisms. Cem Concr Res 2003; 33: 341–346.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Sarin P, Snoeyink VL, Lytle DA, Kriven WM, Clement JA. Physico-chemical characteristics of corrosion scales in old iron pipes. Water Res 2001; 35: 2961–2969.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Sarin P, Snoeyink VL, Lytle DA, Kriven WM. Iron corrosion scales: models for scale growth, iron release, and colored water formation. J Environ Eng 2004; 130: 364–373.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Sarver EA. Insights into non-uniform copper and brass corrosion in potable water systems. PhD dissertation, Virginia Tech, 2010.Google Scholar

  • Sarver E, Edwards M. Inhibition of copper pitting corrosion in aggressive potable waters. Int J Corros 2012; 2012: 1–16.Google Scholar

  • Sarver E, Dodson K, Slabaugh R, Edwards M. Copper pitting in chlorinated, high pH potable waters. J Am Water Works Assoc 2011; 103: 86–98.Google Scholar

  • Scardina P, Edwards M. Investigation of copper pipe failures at location I. assessment of non-uniform corrosion in copper piping. Denver, CO: AWWARF, 2008.Google Scholar

  • Scardina P, Edwards M, Bosch DJ, Loganathan GV, Dwyer SK. Non-uniform corrosion in copper pitting: case studies. Denver, CO: AWWARF, 2007.Google Scholar

  • Scardina P, Sheffer G, Edwards M. Investigation of copper pipe failures at community E. Assessment of non-uniform corrosion in copper piping. Denver, CO: AWWARF, 2008.Google Scholar

  • Schweitzer PA. Fundamentals of metallic corrosion: atmosphere and media corrosion of metals, 2nd ed., Boca Raton, FL: Taylor and Francis, 2006.Google Scholar

  • Shanaghan P. Assessing drinking water infrastructure need. J Am Water Works Assoc 2012; 104: 14–15.Google Scholar

  • Shemilt LW, Cha CY, Fiadzigbe E, Ponter AB. Steel pipe corrosion under flow conditions – III. effect of sulphate iron. Corros Sci 1980; 20: 443–455.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Shreir LL, Jarman RA, Burstein GT. Corrosion, 3rd ed., Oxford, UK: Elsevier, 1994.Google Scholar

  • Simpson JL, Wegner W, Michaels C. Preparing to repair: the Delaware Aqueduct leak and New York City’s efforts to repair it, Elmsford, NY: Riverkeeper, Inc., 2009.Google Scholar

  • Smart NG, Bockris JOM. Effect of water activity on corrosion. Corrosion 1992; 48: 277–280.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Snyder SM. An investigation on the remediation of leaks from concrete-lined aqueducts using calcium carbonate precipitation. Master’s thesis, Syracuse University, 2009.Google Scholar

  • Stumm W, Morgan JJ. Aquatic chemistry: chemical equilibria and rates in natural waters, 3rd ed., New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996.Google Scholar

  • Szklarska-Smialowska Z. The pitting corrosion of iron in sodium sulfate. Corros Sci 1978; 18: 97–101.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Taxén C, Letelier MV, Lagos G. Model for estimation of copper release to drinking water from copper pipes. Corros Sci 2012; 58: 267–277.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • The European Plastic Pipe & Fittings Association (TEPPFA). First European pipe survey of existing networks. Available at http://www.teppfa.org/pdf/ABSORPTIONFINAL.pdf, 2007.

  • Tomboulian P, Wilson J, Mullin K, Schweitzer, L. Materials used in drinking water distribution systems: contribution to taste-and-odor. Water Sci Technol 2004; 49: 219–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar

  • Traubenberg SE, Foley RT. The influence of chloride and sulfate irons on the corrosion of iron in sulfuric acid. J Electrochem Soc 1971; 118: 1066–1070.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Tseng T, Segal BD, Edwards M. Increasing alkalinity to reduce turbidity. J Am Water Works Assoc 2000; 92: 44–54.Google Scholar

  • Tsivilis S, Tsantilas J, Kakali G, Chaniotakis E, Sakellariou A. The permeability of Portland limestone cement concrete. Cem Concr Res 2003; 33: 1465–1471.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Turner L. The healing of cement and concrete. Concr Constr Eng 1937; 32: 141–144.Google Scholar

  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Corrosion in potable water systems: final report. Washington, DC: Office of Drinking Water, 1982.Google Scholar

  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The clean water and drinking water infrastructure gap analysis. Washington, DC: Office of Water, 2002.Google Scholar

  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Addressing the challenge through science and innovation. Washington, DC: Aging Water Infrastructure Research, Office of Research and Development, 2010.Google Scholar

  • U.S. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Corrosion costs and preventive strategies in the United States. Publication No. FHWA-RD-01-156, 2002.Google Scholar

  • U.S. Plastic Piping Educational Foundation (PPFA). Plumbing apprentice training manual for plastic piping systems. Illinois, 2002.Google Scholar

  • Van Der Merwe SW. The effect of water quality variables on the corrosive behavior of water coagulated with a cationic polyelectrolyte and with lime/activated silica. Water Supp 1988; 6: SS2.Google Scholar

  • Vargas IT, Alsina MA, Pasten PA, Pizarro GE. Influence of solid corrosion by-products on the consumption of dissolved oxygen in copper pipes. Corros Sci 2009; 51: 1030–1037.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Vargas IT, Pavissich JP, Olivares TE, Jeria GA, Cienfuegos RA, Pastén PA, Pizarro GE. Increase of the concentration of dissolved copper in drinking water systems due to flow-induced nanoparticle release from surface corrosion by-products. Corros Sci 2010; 52: 3492–3503.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Volk C, Dundore E, Schiermann J, LeChevallier M. Practical evaluation of iron corrosion control in a drinking water distribution system. Water Res 2000; 34: 1967–1974.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Wagner EF. Autogenous healing of cracks in cement-mortar linings for gray-iron and ductile-iron water pipe. Water Technol Dist 1974; 66: 358–360.Google Scholar

  • Walker FG, Schaefer GM. White paper: corrosion and cracks in water pipes: can we see them sooner? Largo, MD: Bartron Medical Imaging, Inc., 2009.Google Scholar

  • Wallis-Lage C, Chevrette J. Strategic directions in the US water utility industry. J Am Water Works Assoc 2012; 104: 73–83.Google Scholar

  • Wang K, Jansen DC, Shah SP, Karr AF. Permeability study of cracked concrete. Cem Concr Res 1997; 27: 381–393.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Woodson RD. 2006 International plumbing codes. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2006.Google Scholar

  • Zemajtis J. Modeling the time to corrosion initiation for concretes with mineral admixtures and/or corrosion inhibitors in chloride-laden environments. PhD dissertation, Virginia Tech, 1998.Google Scholar

  • Zhang Y. Relative effects of water chemistry on aspects of iron corrosion. Master’s thesis, Virginia Tech, 2005.Google Scholar

  • Zhang X, Pehkonen SO, Kocherginsky N, Ellis GA. Copper corrosion in mildly alkaline water with the disinfectant monochloramine. Corros Sci 2002; 22: 2507–2528.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • Zhang Z, Stout JE, Yu VL, Vidic R. Effect of pipe corrosion scales on chlorine dioxide consumption in drinking water distribution systems. Water Res 2008; 42: 129–136.PubMedCrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Min Tang

Min Tang is currently a PhD candidate in the Civil and Environmental Engineering Department at Virginia Tech. She received her Bachelor’s degree from Sichuan University and Master’s degree from Virginia Tech in Environmental Engineering in 2011 and 2013, respectively. Her research interests include aquatic water chemistry, in situ remediation in water supply systems, corrosion, and water/wastewater treatment.

Simoni Triantafyllidou

Simoni Triantafyllidou was a postdoctoral researcher at Virginia Tech when this work was undertaken. Dr. Triantafyllidou earned her MS and PhD degrees in Environmental Engineering at Virginia Tech, and her research interests include aquatic chemistry, corrosion science, drinking water quality/treatment, sustainable drinking water infrastructure, and public health. She has authored and coauthored numerous publications on these topics. Dr. Triantafyllidou is the recipient of First Place MS Thesis Awards by the Association of Environmental Engineering and Science Professors (AEESP) and AWWA, an Outstanding PhD Dissertation Award by AEESP, a Larson Research Aquatic Support Scholarship by AWWA, and a Best Paper Award in the journal Environmental Science and Technology.

Marc Edwards

Marc Edwards received his Bachelor’s degree in Bio-Physics from SUNY Buffalo and an MS/PhD degree in Environmental Engineering from the University of Washington. His MS thesis and PhD dissertation won national awards from the AWWA, the Association of Environmental Engineering and Science Professors, and the Water Environment Federation. In 2004, Time Magazine dubbed Dr. Edwards “The Plumbing Professor” and listed him among the four most important “Innovators” in water from around the world. The White House awarded him a Presidential Faculty Fellowship in 1996. In 1994, 1995, 2005, and 2011, Edwards received Outstanding Paper Awards in the Journal of American Waterworks Association and received the H.P. Eddy Medal in 1990 for best research publication by the Water Pollution Control Federation (currently Water Environment Federation). He was later awarded the Walter Huber Research Prize from the ASCE (2003), State of Virginia Outstanding Faculty Award (2006), a MacArthur Fellowship (2008–2012), the Praxis Award in Professional Ethics from Villanova University (2010), and the IEEE Barus Award for Defending the Public Interest (2012). His paper on lead poisoning of children in Washington, D.C., due to elevated lead in drinking water, was judged the outstanding science paper in Environmental Science and Technology in 2010. Since 1995, undergraduate and graduate students advised by Edwards have won 23 nationally recognized awards for their research work on corrosion and water treatment. Edwards is currently the Charles Lunsford Professor of Civil Engineering at Virginia Tech, where he teaches courses in environmental engineering ethics and applied aquatic chemistry.

Corresponding author: Min Tang, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Virginia Tech, Durham Hall 418, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA, e-mail:

Received: 2013-06-04

Accepted: 2013-09-20

Published Online: 2013-11-22

Published in Print: 2013-12-01

Citation Information: Corrosion Reviews, ISSN (Online) 2191-0316, ISSN (Print) 0334-6005, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/corrrev-2013-0026.

Export Citation

©2013 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin Boston. Copyright Clearance Center

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

Colin S. Richards, Fei Wang, William C. Becker, and Marc A. Edwards
Environmental Engineering Science, 2017
Fei Wang, Christina L. Devine, and Marc A. Edwards
Environmental Science & Technology, 2017, Volume 51, Number 15, Page 8561
Min Tang and Marc Edwards
CORROSION, 2017, Volume 73, Number 8, Page 1017

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in