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Chemical and Process Engineering

The Journal of Committee of Chemical and Process of Polish Academy of Sciences

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Process Design for Size-Controlled Flame Spray Synthesis of Li4Ti5O12 and Electrochemical Performance

Oliver Waser
  • Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland
/ Oliver Brenner
  • Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland
/ Arto J. Groehn
  • Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, 80309 CO, United States of America
/ Sotiris E. Pratsinis
  • Corresponding author
  • Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland
  • Email:
Published Online: 2017-04-28 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/cpe-2017-0005


Inexpensive synthesis of electroceramic materials is required for efficient energy storage. Here the design of a scalable process, flame spray pyrolysis (FSP), for synthesis of size-controlled nanomaterials is investigated focusing on understanding the role of air entrainment (AE) during their aerosol synthesis with emphasis on battery materials. The AE into the enclosed FSP reactor is analysed quantitatively by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and calculated temperatures are verified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Various Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) particle compositions are made and characterized by N2 adsorption, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction while the electrochemical performance of LTO is tested at various charging rates. Increasing AE decreases recirculation in the enclosing tube leading to lower reactor temperatures and particle concentrations by air dilution as well as shorter and narrower residence time distributions. As a result, particle growth by coagulation - coalescence decreases leading to smaller primary particles that are mostly pure LTO exhibiting high C-rate performance with more than 120 mAh/g galvanostatic specific charge at 40C, outperforming commercial LTO. The effect of AE on FSP-made particle characteristics is demonstrated also in combustion synthesis of LiFePO4 and ZrO2.

Keywords: Li-ion battery; Li4Ti5O12; size control; residence time distribution; computational fluid dynamics; flame synthesis of electroceramics


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About the article

Received: 2016-10-04

Revised: 2017-02-18

Accepted: 2017-02-20

Published Online: 2017-04-28

Published in Print: 2017-03-01

Citation Information: Chemical and Process Engineering, ISSN (Online) 2300-1925, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/cpe-2017-0005. Export Citation

© Polish Academy of Sciences. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License. (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

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