Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Chemical Product and Process Modeling

Ed. by Sotudeh-Gharebagh, Rhamat / Mostoufi, Navid / Chaouki, Jamal

CiteScore 2017: 0.96

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.295
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.347

See all formats and pricing
More options …

Numerical Investigation of Combined Top and Lateral Blowing in a Peirce-Smith Converter

D. K. Chibwe
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Process Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, P Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ G. Akdogan
  • Department of Process Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, P Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ P. Taskinen
  • Department of Material science and Engineering, School of Chemical Technology, Aalto University, P.O Box 16200, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2013-10-31 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/cppm-2013-0036


Typical current operation of lateral-blown Peirce-Smith converters (PSCs) has the common phenomenon of splashing and slopping due to air injection. The splashing and wave motion in these converters cause metal losses and potential production lost time due to intermittent cleaning of the converter mouth and thus reduced process throughput. Understanding of the effect of combined top and lateral blowing could possibly lead to alternative technology advancement for increased process efficiency. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of conventional common practice (lateral blowing) and combined (top and lateral blowing) in a PSC were carried out, and results of flow variables (bath velocity, turbulence kinetic energy, etc.) were compared. The two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) simulations of the three-phase system (air–matte–slag) were executed utilizing a commercial CFD numerical software code, ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. These simulations were performed employing the volume of fluid and realizable turbulence models to account for multiphase and turbulent nature of the flow, respectively. Upon completion of the simulations, the results of the models were analysed and compared by means of density contour plots, velocity vector plots, turbulent kinetic energy vector plots, average turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent intensity contour plots and average matte bulk velocity. It was found that both blowing configuration and slag layer thickness have significant effects on mixing propagation, wave formation and splashing in the PSC as the results showed wave formation and splashing significantly being reduced by employing combined top- and lateral-blowing configurations.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics; simulations; Peirce-Smith converter; combined blowing


  • 1.

    Liow JL, Gray NB. Slopping resulting from gas injection in a Peirce-Smith converter: water modeling. Metall Mater Trans B 1990;21:987–96.Google Scholar

  • 2.

    Castillejos AH, Brimacombe JK. Measurement of physical characteristics of bubbles in gas–liquid plumes: part II. Local properties of turbulent air-water plumes in vertically injected jets. Metall Mater Trans B 1987;18:659–71.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 3.

    Mazumdar D, Guthrie RI. Mixing models for gas stirred metallurgical reactors. Metall Mater Trans B 1986;17:725–33.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 4.

    Stapurewicz T, Themelis NJ. Mixing and mass transfer phenomena in bottom-injected gas–liquid reactors. Can Metall Q 1987;26:123–8.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 5.

    Chibwe DK, Akdogan G, Aldrich C, Eric RH. CFD modelling of global mixing parameters in a Peirce-Smith converter with comparison to physical modelling. Chem Prod Process Model 2011;6:22–52.Google Scholar

  • 6.

    Vaarno J, Pitkälä J, Ahokainen T, Jokilaakso A. Modelling gas injection of a Peirce-Smith-converter. Appl Math Model 1998;22:907–20.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 7.

    Valencia A, Rosales M, Paredes R, Leon C, Moyano A. Numerical and experimental investigation of the fluid dynamics in a Teniente type copper converter. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf 2006;33:302–10.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 8.

    Haida O, Brimacombe JK. Physical-model study of the effect of gas kinetic energy in injection refining processes. Trans Iron Steel Inst Jpn 1985;25:14–20.Google Scholar

  • 9.

    Valencia A, Paredes R, Rosales M, Godoy E, Ortega J. Fluid dynamics of submerged gas injection into liquid in a model of copper converter. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf 2004;31:21–30.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 10.

    Sinha UP, McNallan MJ. Mixing in ladles by vertical injection of gas and gas-particle jets – a water model study. Metall Mater Trans B 1985;16:850–3.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 11.

    Koohi AH, Halali M, Askari M, Manzari MT. Investigation and modeling of splashing in the Peirce Smith converter. Chem Prod Process Model 2008;3:2.Google Scholar

  • 12.

    Ramirez-Argaez MA. Numerical simulation of fluid flow and mixing in gas-stirred ladles. Mater Manufacturing Process 2008;23:59–68.Google Scholar

  • 13.

    Kyllo AK, Richards GG. A kinetic model of Pierce Smith converter: part II. Model application and discussion. Metall Trans B 1998;29b:251–9.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 14.

    Rosales M, Fuentes R, Ruz P, Godoy J. A fluid dynamic simulation of a Teniente converter. Copper International Conference – Cobre, 991999:107–21.Google Scholar

  • 15.

    Schwarz MP. Simulation of gas injection into liquid melts. Appl Math Model 1996;20:41–51.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 16.

    Valencia A, Cordova M, Ortega J. Numerical simulation of gas bubbles formation at a submerged orifice in a liquid. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf 2002;29:821–30.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 17.

    Han JW, Heo SH, Kam DH, You BD, Pak JJ, Song HS. Transient fluid flow phenomena in a gas stirred liquid bath with top oil layer – approach by numerical simulation and water model experiments. ISIJ Int 2001;41:1165–72.Google Scholar

  • 18.

    Real C, Hoyos L, Cervantes F, Miranda R, Palomar-Pardave M, Barron M, et al. Fluid characterization of copper converters. Mecánica Computacional 2007;26:1311–23.Google Scholar

  • 19.

    Marcuson SW, Landolt CA, Amson JH, Davies H. Converter and method for top blowing nonferrous metal. USA patent 5180423, 1993.Google Scholar

  • 20.

    Shih TH, Liou WW, Shabbir A, Yang Z, Zhu J. A new k-[epsilon] eddy viscosity model for high Reynolds number turbulent flows. Comput Fluids 1995;24:227–38.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

  • 21.

    Ansys I. ANSYS FLUENT theory guide. Release 14.0 edn. USA: ANSYS Inc, 2011.Google Scholar

  • 22.

    Mazumdar D, Evans JW. Macroscopic models for gas stirred ladles. ISIJ Int 2004;44:447–61.CrossrefGoogle Scholar

About the article

Published Online: 2013-10-31

Citation Information: Chemical Product and Process Modeling, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 119–127, ISSN (Online) 1934-2659, ISSN (Print) 2194-6159, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/cppm-2013-0036.

Export Citation

©2013 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin / Boston.Get Permission

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in