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Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy

Official journal of the European Society of Pharmacogenomics and Personalised Therapy

Editor-in-Chief: Llerena, Adrián

Editorial Board: Benjeddou, Mongi / Chen, Bing / Dahl, Marja-Liisa / Devinsky, Ferdinand / Hirata, Rosario / Hubacek, Jaroslav A. / Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus / Maitland-van der Zee, Anke-Hilse / Manolopoulos, Vangelis G. / Marc, Janja / Melichar, Bohuslav / Meyer, Urs A. / Nair, Sujit / Nofziger, Charity / Peiro, Ana / Sadee, Wolfgang / Salazar, Luis A. / Simmaco, Maurizio / Turpeinen, Miia / Schaik, Ron / Shin, Jae-Gook / Visvikis-Siest, Sophie / Zanger, Ulrich M.

CiteScore 2017: 1.46

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.531
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.645

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Volume 28, Issue 2


An update on the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR)

Ferdinand Molnár
  • School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences and Biocenter Kuopio, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Jenni Küblbeck
  • School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences and Biocenter Kuopio, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
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  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Johanna Jyrkkärinne
  • School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences and Biocenter Kuopio, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
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  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Viktória Prantner
  • School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences and Biocenter Kuopio, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
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  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Paavo Honkakoski
  • Corresponding author
  • School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences and Biocenter Kuopio, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
  • Email
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  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2013-05-13 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/dmdi-2013-0009


The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR; NR1I3) has emerged as one of the main drug- and xenobiotic-sensitive transcriptional regulators. It has a major effect on the expression of several oxidative and conjugative enzymes and transporters, and hence, CAR can contribute to drug/drug interactions. Novel functions for CAR are also emerging: it is able to modulate the metabolic fate of glucose, lipids, and bile acids, and it is also involved in cell-cell communication, regulation of the cell cycle, and chemical carcinogenesis. Here, we will review the recent information available on CAR and its target gene expression, its interactions with partner proteins and mechanisms of action, interindividual and species variation, and current advances in CAR ligand selectivity and methods used in interrogation of its ligands.

Keywords: constitutive androstane receptor (CAR); CYP expression; in vitro assays; ligand-binding domain; ligand specificity; nuclear receptor


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About the article

Corresponding author: Paavo Honkakoski, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences and Biocenter Kuopio, University of Eastern Finland, PO Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland, Phone: +358 40 355 2490

Received: 2013-02-01

Accepted: 2013-04-17

Published Online: 2013-05-13

Published in Print: 2013-06-01

Citation Information: Drug Metabolism and Drug Interactions, Volume 28, Issue 2, Pages 79–93, ISSN (Online) 2191-0162, ISSN (Print) 0792-5077, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/dmdi-2013-0009.

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