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Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy

Official journal of the European Society of Pharmacogenomics and Personalised Therapy

Editor-in-Chief: Llerena, Adrián

Editorial Board: Benjeddou, Mongi / Chen, Bing / Dahl, Marja-Liisa / Devinsky, Ferdinand / Hirata, Rosario / Hubacek, Jaroslav A. / Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus / Maitland-van der Zee, Anke-Hilse / Manolopoulos, Vangelis G. / Marc, Janja / Melichar, Bohuslav / Meyer, Urs A. / Nair, Sujit / Nofziger, Charity / Peiro, Ana / Sadee, Wolfgang / Salazar, Luis A. / Simmaco, Maurizio / Turpeinen, Miia / Schaik, Ron / Shin, Jae-Gook / Visvikis-Siest, Sophie / Zanger, Ulrich M.

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Volume 29, Issue 3


The pharmacogenetics of carboxylesterases: CES1 and CES2 genetic variants and their clinical effect

Zahra Merali / Stephanie Ross
  • Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • Population Genomics Program, Chanchlani Research Centre, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Guillaume Paré
  • Corresponding author
  • Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • Population Genomics Program, Chanchlani Research Centre, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • Thrombosis and Atherosclerosis Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2014-07-02 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/dmdi-2014-0009


Human carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) and carboxylesterase 2 (CES2) are serine esterases responsible for the hydrolysis of ester and amide bonds present in a number of pharmaceutical products. Several common genetic variants of the CES1 and CES2 genes have been shown to influence drug metabolism and clinical outcomes. Polymorphisms of the CES1 gene have been reported to affect the metabolism of dabigatran etexilate, methylphenidate, oseltamivir, imidapril, and clopidogrel, whereas variants of the CES2 gene have been found to affect aspirin and irinotecan. Although the findings of these studies may be preliminary, they demonstrate the potential clinical utility of CES polymorphisms; however, more research is required, especially with respect to CES2. In this review, we outline the functional, molecular, and genetic properties of CES1 and CES2, and highlight recent studies that have shown relations between CES1 and CES2 variants and contemporary pharmacotherapy.

Keywords: aspirin; carboxylesterase; carboxylesterase 1; carboxylesterase 2; clopidogrel; dabigatran etexilate; gene function; imidapril; irinotecan; methylphenidate; oseltamivir; pharmacogenetics


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About the article

Corresponding author: Guillaume Paré, Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton General Hospital Campus, DB-CVSRI, 237 Barton Street East, Room C3103, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8L 2X2, Phone: +1 905 527 4322 ext. 40377, Fax: +1 905 296 5806, E-mail:

Received: 2014-02-18

Accepted: 2014-05-16

Published Online: 2014-07-02

Published in Print: 2014-09-01

Citation Information: Drug Metabolism and Drug Interactions, Volume 29, Issue 3, Pages 143–151, ISSN (Online) 2191-0162, ISSN (Print) 0792-5077, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/dmdi-2014-0009.

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