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Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy

Official journal of the European Society of Pharmacogenomics and Personalised Therapy

Editor-in-Chief: Llerena, Adrián

Editorial Board: Benjeddou, Mongi / Chen, Bing / Dahl, Marja-Liisa / Devinsky, Ferdinand / Hirata, Rosario / Hubacek, Jaroslav A. / Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus / Maitland-van der Zee, Anke-Hilse / Manolopoulos, Vangelis G. / Marc, Janja / Melichar, Bohuslav / Meyer, Urs A. / Nair, Sujit / Nofziger, Charity / Peiro, Ana / Sadee, Wolfgang / Salazar, Luis A. / Simmaco, Maurizio / Turpeinen, Miia / Schaik, Ron / Shin, Jae-Gook / Visvikis-Siest, Sophie / Zanger, Ulrich M.

CiteScore 2018: 1.01

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.277
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.446

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Volume 34, Issue 2


Enhanced oral bioavailability of linagliptin by the influence of gallic acid and ellagic acid in male Wistar albino rats: involvement of p-glycoprotein inhibition

Munthaj Shaik
  • Department of Pharmacognosy and phytochemistry, Kakatiya University, Warangal, Telangana, India
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
/ Swaroopa Rani Vanapatla
  • Corresponding author
  • Department of Pharmacognosy and phytochemistry, Kakatiya University, Warangal, Telangana, India
  • University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kakatiya University, Warangal, Telangana-506009, India
  • Email
  • Other articles by this author:
  • De Gruyter OnlineGoogle Scholar
Published Online: 2019-06-29 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/dmpt-2018-0020



Linagliptin is an antidiabetic drug used for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. The oral bioavailability of linagliptin is low (29.5%) due to its first pass metabolism in the intestine and liver. Gallic acid and ellagic acid are natural polyphenols which are widely distributed in fruits and medicinal plants. Gallic acid and ellagic acid have been reported to inhibit p-glycoprotein (p-gp) and enhance the bioavailability of p-gp substrate drugs. Hence, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of gallic acid and ellagic acid on intestinal transport and bioavailability of linagliptin, a p-gp substrate in diabetic rats.


The intestinal transport of linagliptin was assessed by conducting an in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion study. The oral pharmacokinetics was evaluated by conducting oral bioavailability study in diabetic rats.


After pretreatment with gallic acid and ellagic acid, no significant change in effective permeability of linagliptin was observed at the ileum part of the rat intestine. A significant improvement in the peak serum concentration (Cmax) and area under the serum concentration time profile (AUC), AUMC, AUCtotal and decrease in clearance were observed in rats pretreated with gallic acid and ellagic acid.


This study demonstrates that gallic acid and ellagic acids increase the bioavailability of oral linagliptin in rats due to the inhibition of p-gp. These animal data need to be confirmed in a clinical setting to determine whether linagliptin dosing should be adjusted when given concomitantly with these phytochemicals or gallic acid/ellagic acid-containing dietary supplements.

Keywords: bioavailability; ellagic acid; gallic acid; linagliptin; p-glycoprotein; pharmacokinetics; verapamil


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About the article

Received: 2018-07-07

Accepted: 2019-02-08

Published Online: 2019-06-29

Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.

Research funding: None declared.

Employment or leadership: None declared.

Honorarium: None declared.

Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.

Citation Information: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy, Volume 34, Issue 2, 20180020, ISSN (Online) 2363-8915, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/dmpt-2018-0020.

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