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About the article
Published Online: 2019-07-11
Author contributions: All the authors have accepted responsibility for the entire content of this submitted manuscript and approved submission.
Research funding: Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number K23NS107643. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Newman-Toker’s effort was supported by the Armstrong Institute Center for Diagnostic Excellence. No financial support for this study was provided by contract with any other agency, foundation, company, institute, or philanthropic foundation.
Employment or leadership: None declared.
Honorarium: None declared.
Competing interests: The funding organization(s) played no role in the study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; or in the decision to submit the report for publication.
Conflicts of interest: ALL, JS, PG, and DS report no conflicts of interest. Dr. Newman-Toker has conducted government and foundation funded research related to diagnostic error, dizziness, and stroke. He has been loaned research equipment related to diagnosis of dizziness and stroke by two commercial companies (Natus/Otometrics and Interacoustics) and Johns Hopkins has licensed related diagnostic decision-support technology to Otometrics for which Dr. Newman-Toker has received a royalty payment; he occasionally serves as a paid consultant, reviewing medicolegal cases for both plaintiff and defense firms related to misdiagnosis of neurological conditions, including dizziness and stroke.