Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Show Summary Details
More options …

Electrical, Control and Communication Engineering

The Journal of Riga Technical University

2 Issues per year

Open Access
See all formats and pricing
More options …

Active Battery Balancing for Battery Packs

Javier Gallardo-Lozano / Abdul Lateef / Enrique Romero-Cadaval / M. Isabel Milanés-Montero
Published Online: 2013-05-11 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/ecce-2013-0006


In electric vehicle applications, it is necessary to use series strings of batteries since the required voltage is higher than the one that can be obtained from a single battery. Due to several factors, imbalance of batteries in these battery systems is usual and an important factor that has to be taken into account. Many balancing methods have been developed with a lot of different advantages, but all of them also have a lot of disadvantages such as complexity and/or high cost, which are the common problems that can be found in most of these equalization methods. In the present work, a low cost and very simple equalization method is proposed, in which a novel control is applied to a shunting transistor topology. It allows the transistors to regulate the amount of current that goes through each battery cell in the string depending on their State of Charge (SOC), during the charging process. This control ensures that the least charged cells to be charged faster, and the most charged ones to be charged more slowly. Design criteria are discussed and simulation results are carried out in a generic battery low power application which proves the control method. Fast equalization with a low complexity and cost is obtained

Keywords : Batteries; current control; power MOSFET; power dissipation

  • [1] Sveum, P.; Kizilel, R.; Khader, M.; Al-Hallaj, S.; "IIT Plug-in Conversion Project with the City of Chicago", Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference 2007. VPPC 2007. IEEE, pp.493-497, 9-12 Sept. 2007. Google Scholar

  • [2] Uno, M.; Tanaka, K.; "Influence of High-Frequency Charge-Discharge Cycling Induced by Cell Voltage Equalizers on the Life Performance of Lithium-Ion Cells", IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol.60, no.4, pp.1505-1515, May 2011 Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

  • [3] Kuhn, B.T.; Pitel, G.E.; Krein, P.T.; "Electrical properties and equalization of lithium-ion cells in automotive applications", IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, 2005, pp. 5, 7-9 Sept. 2005. Google Scholar

  • [4] Broussely, M.; Perelle, M.; McDowall, J.; Sarre, G.; Martaeng, J; "Lithium ion: the next generation of long life batteries characteristics, life predictions, and integration into telecommunication systems", Telecommunications Energy Conference, 2000. INTELEC. Twentysecond International, pp.194-201, 2000. Google Scholar

  • [5] Gottwald, T.; Ye, Z.; Stuart, T.; "Equalization of EV and HEV batteries with a ramp converter", IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, vol.33, no.1, pp.307-312, Jan. 1997. Google Scholar

  • [6] Kutkut, N.H.; Wiegman, H.L.N.; Divan, D.M.; Novotny, D.W.; "Design considerations for charge equalization of an electric vehicle battery system", IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol.35, no.1, pp.28-35, Jan/Feb 1999. Google Scholar

  • [7] Hung, S.T.; Hopkins, D.C.; Mosling, C.R.; "Extension of battery life via charge equalization control", IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol.40, no.1, pp.96-104, Feb 1993. Google Scholar

  • [8] Krein, P.T.; Balog, R.S.; "Life extension through charge equalization of lead-acid batteries", Telecommunications Energy Conference, 2002. INTELEC. 24th Annual International, pp. 516- 523, 2002. Google Scholar

  • [9] Hopkins, D.C.; Mosling, C.R.; Hung, S.T.; "Dynamic equalization during charging of serial energy storage elements", IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol.29, no.2, pp.363-368, Mar/Apr 1993. Google Scholar

  • [10] Bentley, W.F.; "Cell balancing considerations for lithium-ion battery systems", Battery Conference on Applications and Advances, 1997., Twelfth Annual, pp.223-226, 14-17 Jan 1997. Google Scholar

  • [11] Jian Cao; Schofield, N.; Emadi, A.; "Battery balancing methods: A comprehensive review", Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, 2008. VPPC '08 IEEE, vol., no., pp.1-6, 3-5 Sept. 2008. Google Scholar

  • [12] Daowd, M.; Omar, N.; Van Den Bossche, P.; Van Mierlo, J.; "Passive and active battery balancing comparison based on MATLAB simulation" IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC) 2011, pp.1-7, 6-9 Sept. 2011. Google Scholar

  • [13] Kong Zhi-Guo; Zhu Chun-Bo; Lu Ren-Gui; Cheng Shu-Kang; "Comparison and Evaluation of Charge Equalization Technique for Series Connected Batteries", 37th IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2006. PESC '06, pp.1-6, 18-22 June 2006. Google Scholar

  • [14] Gallardo-Lozano, J.; Milanes-Montero, M.I.; Guerrero-Martinez, M.A.; Romero-Cadaval, E.; "Three-phase bidirectional battery charger for smart electric vehicles", 7th International Conference-Workshop Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE) 2011, pp.371-376, 1-3 June 2011. Google Scholar

  • [15] Gallardo Lozano, J; Milanés Montero, María Isabel; Guerrero Martínez, Miguel A.; Romero Cadaval, Enrique; "Electric Vehicle Battery Charger for Smart Grids". Electric Power Systems Research. Vol. 90, pp. 18-29, ISSN 0378-7796. Elsevier. Septiembre 2012.Web of ScienceGoogle Scholar

About the article

Javier Gallardo-Lozano

Javier Gallardo-Lozano was born in Badajoz, Spain, in 1968. He received the B.Sc. and the M.Sc. degrees electronic engineering from University of Extremadura, Spain, in 2007 and 2009, respectively, where he is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree. His Ph.D. thesis is devoted to the research and development of energy storage in electric vehicle applications. He is currently with the Power Electrical and Electronic Systems (PE&ES) Research Group (http://peandes.unex.es). His research interests are power electronics in the power system, battery chargers, battery equalization and electric vehicles. Postal address: Universidad de Extremadura, Campus universitario, Escuela de Ingenierías Industriales, Laboratorio C2.7, Avda. de Elvas, s/n 06006, Badajoz, Spain.

Abdul Lateef

Abdul Lateef received his B.E. (Elec. & Instr.) from Gulbarga University in 2000 and his M.S.E.E. from Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) in 2003. From 2004 to 2008, he worked at IIT on safety and thermal management of lithium ion battery systems for high power and high energy applications. From 2008 to 2011, he worked at Technovalutions, Dubai on feasibility of lithium ion batteries for PV applications. Since 2012 he has been pursuing his graduate studies at the Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, McMaster University. His main research area is power conversion and battery safety. Postal address: 1280 Main Street West, ITB – A102, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4K1.

Enrique Romero-Cadaval

Enrique Romero-Cadaval was born in Villafranca de los Barros, Badajoz, Spain, in 1968. He received the M.Sc. degree in electronic industrial engineering from ICAI, Universidad Pontificia de Comillas, Madrid, Spain, in 1992 and the Ph. D. degree from the Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz, Spain, in 2004. He is a full Professor in power electronics at the University of Extremadura, Badajoz, Spain. He is currently with the Power Electrical and Electronic Systems (PE&ES) Research Group (http://peandes.unex.es). His research interests are power electronics in the power system, power quality, electromagnetic interferences, active power filters, electric vehicle and renewable energy sources control. Postal address: Universidad de Extremadura, Campus universitario, Escuela de Ingenierías Industriales, Laboratorio C2.7, Avda. de Elvas, s/n 06006, Badajoz, Spain.

M. Isabel Milanés-Montero

María Isabel Milanés-Montero (S’03– M’06) was born in Badajoz, Spain, in 1974. She received the M.Sc. degree in industrial engineering and the Ph.D. degree from the University of Extremadura, Badajoz, in 1997 and 2005, respectively. Since November 1998, she has been with the University of Extremadura, where she was first an Assistant Professor at the Electrical, Electronics and Automation Engineering Department and is currently at the Power Electrical and Electronic Systems Research Group, School of Industrial Engineering. Her major fields of research interest include solid-state power converter design and control, electromagnetic interferences, power quality, renewable energy sources control, and electrical machine drives. Postal address: Universidad de Extremadura, Campus universitario, Escuela de Ingenierías Industriales, Laboratorio C2.7, Avda. de Elvas, s/n 06006, Badajoz, Spain.

Published Online: 2013-05-11

Published in Print: 2013-04-01

Citation Information: Electrical, Control and Communication Engineering, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 40–46, ISSN (Online) 2255-9159, ISSN (Print) 2255-9140, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/ecce-2013-0006.

Export Citation

This content is open access.

Citing Articles

Here you can find all Crossref-listed publications in which this article is cited. If you would like to receive automatic email messages as soon as this article is cited in other publications, simply activate the “Citation Alert” on the top of this page.

M.S. Yusof, S.F. Toha, N.A Kamisan, N.N.W.N. Hashim, and M. A. Abdullah
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2017, Volume 184, Page 012021

Comments (0)

Please log in or register to comment.
Log in